Landless farmers and rubber tappers displaced by cattle rancher in Capixaba, Acre, Brazil

The expulsion of landless farmers and rubber tappers from Seringal Capatará through a rancher illustrates the persisting struggle for land and social rights and the increasing pressure on traditional communities and forests from large-scale agriculture.


Description

This agrarian conflict around the Seringal Capatará, a rural and forested area in the State of Acre, 40 km South of Rio Branco, involves at least 180 rubber tapper and farmer families and the cattle rancher Osvaldo Ribeiro who claims to be the land owner, including an area of at least 5,000 hectares that is in particular under dispute and occupied by the communities. The seringal (rubber plant) is located in the district of Capixaba, at the border to the district of Senador Guiomard, close to the highway BR 317 which connects Acre’s capital Rio Branco with the Brazilian-Peruvian-Bolivian border. [1][2]

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Basic Data
NameLandless farmers and rubber tappers displaced by cattle rancher in Capixaba, Acre, Brazil
CountryBrazil
ProvinceAcre
SiteCapixaba
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Deforestation
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific CommoditiesLand
Meat
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe area is part of an ancient seringal, located around 40 kilometers South of Rio Branco, in a region that is progressively being taken over by the expansion of cattle farming. According to the court decision, 2,000 hectares of forested and inhabited area were to return to the supposed owner Osvaldo Ribeiro but de facto people were expelled from an area of 5,000 hectares. The owner is the cattle farmer Osvaldo Ribeiro who also possesses several fazendas and the company Frigomard and in 2008 became listed by Ibana as number eight of the country’s top one hundred people causing deforestation, with a deforested area of 5,133,000 hectares. He is the uncle of Mauro Ribeiro, a special advisor of the governor of Acre who states to want to promote cattle farming in the region. It is thus likely that the area and also the last parts of rubber forest will be converted into land for cattle farming. [2][5][16][17]
Project Area (in hectares)2,000-5,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population261 families (numbers vary)
Start Date01/07/2004
Relevant government actorsNational Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA)

National Agrarian Obudsman

Civil Court of Capixaba

Assembleia Legislativa do Estado do Acre
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAssociação Seringal Capatará

Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) https://www.cut.org.br/

CPT da Amazônia https://www.cptnacional.org.br/
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingLandless peasants
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsPotential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (failure for environmental justice)
Migration/displacement
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The conflict outcome revealed the ongoing problems regarding land rights in Amazon Brazil and the power inequalities between large-scale farmers and marginalized, landless communities. A large part of the squatters had to leave the territory and lost their basis for living and, moreover, faced threats and violence over the last years. The eviction encompassed a larger area than juridically confirmed. Although practices of rubber tapping that depended on a sustainable use of the forest had already diminished, the area of Seringal Capatará had still been widely forested and characterized by subsistence farming which would have provided a chance to follow a more sustainable development model than the one that is associated with cattle farming, which is also generally taking over in the region and causing vast deforestation.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

case No. 0000397-82.2010.8.01.0009 at Civil Court of Capixaba

References

[3] Klein, Daniel da Silva. Casa N & Maia e Companhia: um estudo microanalítico sobre uma empresa seringalista no vale do rio Acre entre 1894 e 1938. In: Anais do XXI Encontro Estadual de História –ANPUH-SP - Campinas, setembro, 2012.

[6] Correa, A et al. (2010): Acre: entre o fuzil e a borracha. Revista Discente Expressões Geográficas, nº 06, ano VI, p. 19 – 40. Florianópolis, junho de 2010.

Links

[17] G1 Acre (2016): Trechos da BR-317 e BR-364 foram fechados nesta sexta-feira (3). Incra informou que recebeu moradores para conter protestos, 3 June, 2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018)
[click to view]

[16] Jusbrasil (2013) Comissão de Legislação Agrária ouve posseiros do Seringal Catapará
[click to view]

[12] Amazonia na Rede (2013): No Acre, manifestantes cobram soluções para conflitos agrários, 29 June, 2013. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[20] A Gazeta (2016): produtores do seringal capatará acampam em frente ao incra 26 06 2013 (Video report; accessed online 10.07.2018)
[click to view]

[5] Pontes, F. (2013): Acre vive cotidiano de tensão agrária 25 anos após morte de Chico Mendes, BBC Brasil, 22 December, 2013. (accessed online 10.07.2018)
[click to view]

[7] G1 Acre (2013) Após dois dias acampados, produtores deixam sede do Incra. 29 June, 2013. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[14] IRIB (2016) TJAC suspende por 30 dias ordem de reintegração de posse no Seringal Capatará. 8 June, 2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[23] Ecos da notícia (2016): Capatará é invadido de novo e capatazes aguardam ordem para abrir fogo. Bope segue para evitar conflito, 17.11.2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018)
[click to view]

[22] ALEAC (2017): Comissão de Legislação Agrária recebe posseiros do Seringal Capatará e garante reunião com procurador do Incra. (accessed online: 10.07.2018)
[click to view]

[1] AC24horas.com (2017): Moradores pedem justiça contra abuso de pecuarista do seringal Capatará, em Capixaba. AC24horas, 17 April, 2017. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[10] Blog ‘Capixaba em Notícias’ (2013) Sem terras são ameaçados de morte no seringal Capatará, 16 April, 2013. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[8] O Rio Branco (2011) Posseiros são ameaçados no seringal Capatará. 1 Feb, 2011. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[15] Tribunal de Justiça (2016): Justiça autoriza cumprimento de Mandado de Reintegração de Posse no Seringal Capatará, 12 August, 2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[21] Paiva, R. (2016): Polícia dispara balas de borracha e bombas em reintegração de fazenda no Capatará. ContilNet, 11 August, 2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018)
[click to view]

[19] Ecoacre (2016): Matéria: reintegração de terra do capatará. 09.08.16 (Video; accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[2] Commissao Pastoral de Terra (2016): Dos seringais de ontem às fazendas de hoje. 26 August, 2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[18] A Gazeta (2016): Desocupação Seringal Capatará 16 05 16 (Video; accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[11] G1 Acre (2013) Produtores acampam no Incra e pedem soluções para conflito de terra, 27 June, 2013. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[13] Ecoacre (2016): Reintegração de posse será realizada no seringal Capatará; 103 famílias serão despejadas, 9 August, 2016. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[4] Amazonline.org (2018): Os seringueiros da Amazonia. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

[9] Fiocruz (2013): AC – Mais de duzentas famílias de agricultores e seringueiros lutam contra um fazendeiro e seus jagunços por território. (accessed online 10.07.2018).
[click to view]

Media Links

Video (Eviction and Protests) - Desocupação Seringal Capatará (16 05 16)
[click to view]

Video (Posseiros at INCRA) - produtores do seringal capatará acampam em frente ao incra 26 06 201
[click to view]

Video (Eviction 2016) - Matéria: reintegração de terra do capatará. 09.08.16
[click to view]

Video (Posseiros at INCRA) - Posseiros na INCRA
[click to view]

Video (Interviews with evicted people): Matéria: reunião das famÍlias expulsas do Capatará. 23.08.16
[click to view]

Video (Situation 2010) - Moradores do Capatará são obrigados a sair de suas terras
[click to view]

Other Documents

Street closure before eviction
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Protests outside of INCRA in 2013
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Blockade of street BR-317 in protest against court decision
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Policia Militar in the course of the eviction
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TV interviewing protesters camping in front of INCRA
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Landless farmers of Capatará protest in front of INCRA presenting their products
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School kids of Capatará protesting before eviction
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Passive resistance at street blockade
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People of Capatará protesting at BR-317 against announced eviction
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a posseiros community
[click to view]

Negotiations at INCRA
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A posseira of Capatará who has arrived in 2008 and lives from planting cassava in the forest
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorMax Stoisser
Last update15/07/2018
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