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Alibag SEZ in Mumbai, MH, India


Alibag (Alibaug) is a city near Mumbai (Bombay), in the state of Maharastra. In September, 2006 a Special Economic Zone was proposed at Alibag. For this purpose, Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) was supposed to acquire land. The proposed SEZ was being developed by India Bulls infrastructure Development Corporation. For the purpose of SEZ government issued an extraordinary notification empowering the MIDC to acquire nearly 5,000 acres of land in 22 villages [1].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Alibag SEZ in Mumbai, MH, India
State or province:Maharastra
Location of conflict:Alibag
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Project area:2,023
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:25,000-50,000
Start of the conflict:21/09/2006
End of the conflict:25/09/2012
Company names or state enterprises:Indiabulls Group from India
Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) from India
Relevant government actors:Government of Maharashtra
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:'22 Gao bachao Sangharsha Samiti', SEZ Virodhi Sangarsh Samiti, Bawees Gaon Bachao Samiti
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Informal workers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Development of a network/collective action
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Air pollution, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Project cancelled
Development of alternatives:The people have learnt from past experience that the benefits of projects have not been shared. They have only paid costs. So they do not sell their land to the companies at any cost [4]. The activists, urged the villagers to mobilize against the “land mafia” to protect their farms against economic and environmental degradation [2]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:Maharashtra Govt cancelled the Notification for the SEZ in area because of the opposition from the farmers in the region.
Sources & Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] Farmers protest against SEZ
[click to view]

[2] Green activists urge villagers to fight proposed economic zone
[click to view]

[3]India Bulls
[click to view]

[4] Struggle against Reliance SEZ intensifies
[click to view]

Focus now on ‘smart cities’, Mumbai's satellite towns will benefit
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Alibag SEZ
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
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