Asbestos factory Muzaffarpur, BH, India

Asbestos factory forced to stop construction thanks to school children mobilization


Government of Bihar had permitted many asbestos plants to set up in different district of Bihar. Muzarffarpur, Bhojpur, West Champaran and Vaishali districts were selected for setting up these plants. Most of these districts are rich in agriculture and densely populated. Among the many factories, people of Chainpur-Vishunpur village in Muzaffarpur district heavily protested during the construction of an asbestos plant by a Kolkata based company named Balmukund Cement and Roofing Ltd.

See more...
Basic Data
NameAsbestos factory Muzaffarpur, BH, India
SiteVillage - Chainpur-Vishunpur; Block- Marwan; District- Muzaffarpur
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral processing
Other industries
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific CommoditiesAsbestos
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsBalmukund Cement & Roofings Ltd is the subsiadiary of Balmukund Group based in Kolkata, West Bengal. The company is engaged in various types of modern building products [5]. The company’s EIA report revealed that 29000 tonnes per annum of raw asbestos fiber, a hazardous material will be imported to manufacture sheets in the factory [2]. The estimated cost of the factory was about Rs 31-crore [6]. The factory was expected to employ about 500 villagers after it become full functional
Level of Investment (in USD)$4,984,067 (Rs 31crore)
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population25,000-30,000
Start Date2010
Company Names or State EnterprisesBalmukund Cement & Roofings LTD (Balmukund) from India - Owner
Relevant government actorsBihar State Pollution Control Board

Government of Bihar

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCitizen Forum against Asbestos (Patna, Bihar)

‘Khet Bachao Jiwan Bachao Jan Sangharsha Committee’

All India Krishak Khet Mazdoor Sangathan

Communist Party of India--Political Party

Communist Party of India (Marxist)--Political Party

Socialist Unity Centre of India--Political Party
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
School Children
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Property damage/arson
Public campaigns
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Referendum other local consultations
Land occupation
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Development of alternative proposals
Official complaint letters and petitions
Threats to use arms
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases, Other Health impacts, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseStrengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Project cancelled
Withdrawal of company/investment
Development of AlternativesThere is a global awareness of the asbestos fibers and their health impact. When the people all around the globe are trying to get rid of all forms of asbestos, they also do not want to allow any such asbestos plants into their locality. Protestors demanded immediate stop of the construction of asbestos cement plants. They want their village asbestos free. [2].
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Asbestos known to cause lung cancer and silicosis is banned in many developed and developing countries around the world. In India, though mining of asbestos is banned, companies are allowed to manufacture asbestos products.

Local people particularly the school children are very much aware about the severe health impact of Asbestos. So, from July 2010 through January 2011 they protested heavily against coming up of the plant. With the substantial protest, district administration in Muzaffarpur imposed Section 144 (Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) of 1973, (unlawful assembly) according to sections 141-149 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), the maximum punishment for engaging in rioting is rigorous imprisonment for 3 years and/or fine) near the facility. Police also tried to suppress the movement by arresting the leaders [3].

According to the company the villagers’ should not be worried about the plant. The villagers are being misinformed because unlike blue asbestos, white asbestos is harmless. There are over 50 white asbestos factories throughout the country. Many of these factories are in densely-populated areas and there are no protests against the factories in these areas. However, villagers are informed that white asbestos, is widely used in the developing world, but is banned on health grounds in many industrialized countries. Even the World Health Organization says that it is also related to the diseases like mesothelioma, lung and other cancers. So, the villagers are not satisfied with explanations from the company officials. They say that school text books approved by the Bihar government shows that all forms of asbestos are not only harmful but also cause deadly diseases such as cancer. Hence, they will not allow any factory to come up in the village [4].

District Magistrate (DM), Muzaffarpur, stopped construction work and imposed prohibitory orders in the area around Plant in January 2011. However, villagers want to continue their protest till there is total ban on asbestos plants [6].

The movement is unique in the sense not only because of the vociferous nature of the protest but also many poor, and people from remote area with high levels of illiteracy were also involved. The movement has caught the attention of India's environmentalists and prominent social workers. Meanwhile, the schoolchildren of Muzaffarpur are demonstrating every day to make people aware of the hazardous effects of the "asbestos dust" [4].
Sources and Materials

Manufacture, storage and import of hazardous chemical rules, 1989
[click to view]


Indosh News
[click to view]


[1] Bihar, India: People’s movement stalls the construction of an asbestos factory
[click to view]

[2]Copy of letter sent to the Sub Divisional Officer (SDO) of Muzaffarpur
[click to view]

[3] Bihar's Singur? Stir over asbestos plant
[click to view]

[4] Student protest halts asbestos factory in Bihar, India
[click to view]

[5] Balmukund Cement & Roofings LTD.
[click to view]

[6] Resounding 'No!' to asbestos plant in Bihar
[click to view]

Killer asbestos factory impending in Bihar despite protests
[click to view]

High court orders renewal of permit to Utkal asbestos plant in Bihar
[click to view]

Media Links

Protest against Asbestos Factory
[click to view]

Other Documents

Factory closed after protests after the protest Source :
[click to view]

Children learning from school books Source:
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update17/02/2015