The Bangka Belitung Province is made up of approximately 470 islands off the coast of Sumatra, out of which around 50 are inhabited. The two main islands Bangka and Belitung measure 1.6 million ha in total, out of which 75% are licensed for mining by local companies, the biggest two being PT Timah and PT Kobatin (1). The province's on- and offshore tin resources have been exploited for centuries. In 2013, the province accounted for a third of the global tin supply, and its production equalled 106,000 tonnes. The larger part of the tin is produced for the international market, and used foremost in consumer electronics (2) (3). In addition to the large tract of land covered by mining concessions, oil palm plantations occupy another 230,000 ha of the province. This leaves only 300,000 ha of land for other uses, such as residential areas and other cultivation. The risk for agrarian conflict is rising by every concession grant, since the agricultural land of the islanders is compromised (1). The mining governance is decentralised to the regional level and under poor regulation and monitoring (1) (2). In 2001, the Bangka Belitung regent issued a decree that have the private persons to mine tin in the province . Mining areas have expanded into protected forests and marine ecosystems, conservation forests as well as into residential areas (2). There are currently 44 companies operating in Bangka Belitung's protected forests, and 4 in its conservation forest (1).