Bhadreshwar Thermal Power Plant, Gujarat, India


OPG Power Gujarat Private Limited, a subsidiary of London-based firm, OPG Power Ventures PLC has received the in-principle approval to set up a sector-specific special economic zone (SEZ) for power at Bhadreshwar, Mundra, in Kutch district in Gujarat. The firm going set up a 300 megawatt (Mw) (two units of 150 Mw each), coal-based power plant in the SEZ. The company has acquired only part of the required land for the SEZ while it is in the process to acquire additional land. [1, 2] During the protest protesters were arrested following protests against OPGs proposed 300 MW power plant time to time. While in a public hearing for the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) clearance of this proposed thermal power plant was organised in Bhadreshwar in May 2009 with strong protest from over 2,000 people from the affected population. Fishermen, salt-pan workers, pastoralists and farmers from the neighbouring villages participated in a rally prior to the hearing. Protesters submitted a memorandum enlisting their demands to the authority. According to the protesters the area is home to 5,000 fishermen whose only means of livelihood will be affected if the power plant comes up. [3, 4] The National Green Tribunal has put on hold the Bhadreshwar thermal power plant and asked the project proponent, OPG Power Gujarat Pvt Ltd, to stop all works at its 300 MW power plant till it gets the requisite environmental clearance [5].

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Basic Data
NameBhadreshwar Thermal Power Plant, Gujarat, India
SiteVillage - Bhadreshwar; Taluka - Mundra; District-Kutch
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Other industries
Specific CommoditiesElectricity

Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe plant will consist of 2x150 MW (Reconfigured from 300 MW) coal based thermal power plant [6]. The company will use a mix of domestic and imported coal. The plant will require a total of 1.5 million tonnes of coal after achieving 240 Mw of capacities. It will import coal directly from overseas miners as well as from the domestic suppliers like Coal India. OPG Power intends to invest around Rs 3,000 crore over a period of three years to increase capacities at Tamil Nadu and Gujarat projects, of which Gujarat project will have investment of about Rs 1600 crore. [1]
Project Area (in hectares)100
Level of Investment (in USD)261,500,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population10,000
Start Date2009
Company Names or State EnterprisesOPG Power Ventures plc - the company operates power plants in India but is registered in the UK (Isle of Man) and is listed in the London Stock Exchange.
OPG Power Gujarat Private Limited from India
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Gujarat, Gujarat Pollution Control Board
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersMachimar Adhikar Sangharsh Samiti (MASS), Bhadreshwar Salt Association
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Informal workers
Local ejos
Social movements
Salt-pan workers
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of a network/collective action
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
OtherThough the company plans to install a desalination plant, the entire marine ecology will be endangered, as such promises never materialise [3]
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
OtherThe Randh Bhadreshwar Bander is home to 5,000 fishermen whose only means of livelihood will be affected if the power plant comes up [3]

Nearly 4,000 acres of salt pans in the area within a 10 km radius of the proposed power plant will become unsuitable for use, affecting at least 1,500 families of their traditional means of livelihood. The fly-ash generated will be between 10-28 tonnes, polluting the salt-pans in the area to such an extent that the salt thus produced will be non-consumable [3]
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseEnvironmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Negotiated alternative solution
New legislation
Under negotiation
Violent targeting of activists
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Project temporarily suspended
Development of Alternatives1.The KPGL public hearing should be held at the village itself or close to the project location.

2.Alternate sites must be considered for the project because the place is a major fishing settlement for traditional fisherfolk.

3.Extensive EIA including marine ecology must be done in a rigorous and systematic manner.

4.CSR programme has to be developed in consultation with the local communities likely to be affected by the project [2]
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Construction had begun at the site without the necessary approvals under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, and CRZ clearance. The construction had been challenged at the National Green Tribunal by fisherfolk, salt-pan workers, and local villagers. National Green Tribunal directed that no construction activity should take place with respect to the plant until all approvals are obtained by OPG Power Ventures [7]
Sources and Materials

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[1] OPG Power gets in-principle nod for SEZ in Mundra
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[2] Bhadreshwar Thermal Power Project (Adani)
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[3] EIA clearance hearing for proposed hermal plant witnesses strong protest
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[4] 7 held, freed after faceoff with OPG in Kutch
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[5] National Green Tribunal stays thermal power plant in Gujarat
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[6] 300 MW Gujrat
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OPG Power to invest Rs 3,000 cr in TN, Gujarat over 2 yrs
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Setback for OPG Power plant, Kutch,Gujarat
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[7] Bhadreshwar power station (OPG)

Media Links

OPG Power Ventures rolls out coal-fired power stations
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Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update24/06/2014