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Bhavanapadu and Kakarapalli ECEPL Coal Fired Power Plant, AP, India

After a long struggle and some deaths, in 2017 it was announced that work had stopped at Kakarapalli CFPP. Like in Sompeta (also in coastal AP), a success for environmental justice.


Five thermal power projects are proposed to be set up in Srikakulam district. Among the five projects, the proposal of three are in preliminary stage, while the construction of Nagarjuna Construction Company (Sompeta) and East Coast Energy project with 2640 MW capacity each had started [1]. East Coast Energy Private Ltd’s thermal power plant proposed at Kakarapalli in Srikakulam district is to be developed in two phases with a total generation capacity of 2640 MW. Each phase is planned with capacity of 1320 MW having two units of 660 MW. It should have started power generation by March 2015 [2]. The project has received approval for clean development mechanism (CDM) from the National CDM Authority of the Ministry of Environment and Forests; the company affirms they are the first independent power producer in South India to do so.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Bhavanapadu and Kakarapalli ECEPL Coal Fired Power Plant, AP, India
State or province:Andhra Pradesh
Location of conflict:Village - Kakarapalli; Mandal - Santhabommali; District- Srikakulam
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Thermal power plants
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The current project cost was Rs 6,571 crore, with a debt/equity ratio of 3:1. The plant is to be developed in two phases. The estimated total generation capacity of the project is 2640 MW. Each phase is planned with capacity of 1320 MW having two units of 660 MW. Site location, planning and all statutory approvals have been obtained [5]. The company had finalized a long-term power supply agreement with the AP Government for 300 MW at Rs 2.97 per unit during the first full year of operations and over the next 25 years in accordance with the PPA [2].

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Level of Investment:1,095,680,776 (Rs 6,571 crore)
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2010
Company names or state enterprises:East Coast Energy Private Limited (ECEPL) from India - Executor
Relevant government actors:Andhra Pradesh Government, Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Paryavarana Parirakshana Samithi (PPS).
Telegu Desham Party (TDP)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Air pollution
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Other Health impacts
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Violations of human rights, Militarization and increased police presence
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Land dispossession, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Displacement, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts, Increase in violence and crime
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Negotiated alternative solution
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Project cancelled
Withdrawal of company/investment
Development of alternatives:Activists demanded the cancellation of the project. They continue the agitations till the government cancel the environmental clearance.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:The company was planning to accelerate the execution and want to commence generation by March 2015. However, in August 2017 it was announced that East Coast Energy Private Limited has stopped works of Kakarapalli power plant. Like in Sompeta (also in coastal AP), a success for environmental justice.
Sources & Materials
Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] Srikakulam cannot sustain five thermal power plants: expert
[click to view]

[2] East Coast Energy to set up 1,320 MW plant in Srikakulam
[click to view]

[3] Andhra villagers protest against thermal power plant, 2 killed
[click to view]

[5] East Coast Energy Pvt Ltd
[click to view]

[6] Bandh against thermal power plants in Srikakulam district
[click to view]

[7] Yes, let there be light. But no pain
[click to view]

[8] The Argumentative Indian
[click to view]

[4] 2 Killed in protests in Andhra's Srikakulam
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Telugu News - Excited Climate At Thermal Power Plant In Srikakulam (TV5) (In Telegu)
[click to view]

Protests restart against Thermal Power Plant in Srikakulam (In Telegu)
[click to view]

[9] Andhra villagers protest against thermal power plant, 2 killed. At least people were killed and several injured when police fired on a mob protesting a controversial thermal power plant at Kakarapalli area in Andhra Pradesh's Srikakulam district on Monday. Mridula Chanduri. Hyderabad, March 1, 2011
[click to view]

Other comments:See references for period 2011 to 2017 in section Sources of Conflict (UPDATE).
Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra and Brototi Roy
Last update05/01/2018
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