Another resource curse? Black Granite from Mutoko, Zimbabwe

Granite rock has been mined by foreign companies, a curse more than a blessing. Resistance led by Dolorosa Mubvumbi of Budja Environmental Conservation Trust.


Mined in certain areas for over 24 years, the black granite of Mutoko has not yielded meaningful benefits for the community.

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Basic Data
NameAnother resource curse? Black Granite from Mutoko, Zimbabwe
ProvinceMashonaland East
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific CommoditiesBlack Granite
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsIn 2009 Mutoko District produced 121 000 metric tonnes of black granite which was estimated to be worth 12.1 million dollars. The Mutoko Rural District Council only received $18 000.
Project Area (in hectares)70000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population100000
Start Date1985
Company Names or State EnterprisesNatural Stone Export Company from Italy
Natural Stone Quarries from Italy
Manwick Granites from Italy
Natural Stone Matabu from Italy
Relevant government actorsMines Ministry, Minerals Marketing Corporation of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersBudja Environmental Conservation Trust, Mutoko Youth Development Association
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Public campaigns
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Genetic contamination, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Global warming, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Other environmental related diseases
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Militarization and increased police presence
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Criminalization of activists
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
New legislation
Under negotiation
Development of AlternativesValue addition of black granite in Mutoko to ensure that the local community benefits in terms of employment and also in terms of development

Give authority to the Mutoko Rural District
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.There is still a lot of activism needed before the Mutoko black granite issue is resolved. So far government has only played lip service without stopping the mining of the black ground. Need for tight legislation that deals with investor identification, contracts etc
Sources and Materials

Environmental Management Act

Minerals Marketing Corporation of Zimbabwe

Environmental Management Act

Mines and Minerals Act


Economic Approach, Tanyaradzwa Chigonda. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 12, No.3, 2010) (attached)

An Assessment Of The Benefits And Costs Of Black Granite Quarrying In Mutoko District, Zimbabwe: A Socio-Cultural, Biophysical And


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29 July 2011, Zim losing out on granite royalties, by Sifelani Tsiko (excellent report on the economics of granite exports - a extractive industry leaving no local benefit)
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The curse of Mutoko’s black granite
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The Standard, 24/12 2016, Granite mining has turned out to be more of a curse than a blessing for people in Mutoko in Mashonaland East province. It has brought about untold environmental degradation and social ills to the villagers who now find no benefit from the blasting of their mountains. BY TAWANDA TADERERA
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Media Links

[2]Dolorosa Mubvumbi (Mashonaland East Province. Deceased
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The granite quarries of Zimbabwe, AFP
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Mutoko Black Granite Curse (ZELA and Action Aid)
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[1] The forgotten “ Black Diamond” of Mutoko
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By Terry Tinotenda Mutsvanga. The "Curse" of Black Granite in Mutoko is a documentary that exposes the negative impact of extraction mining in Zimbabwe with special emphasis on Mutoko.
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Other Documents

Filmmaker Terry Mutsvanga produced a documentary titled The curse of black granite in Mutoko.
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Meta Information
ContributorFarai Maguwu
Last update22/01/2017