Carbon Black emission from Warri Refinery, Nigeria


Warri Refinery and Petrochemical Company (WRPC) Limited is a subsidiary of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), incorporated in November, 1988, as a result of the merger of the Warri refinery and Ekpan Petroleum Chemical plant.

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Basic Data
NameCarbon Black emission from Warri Refinery, Nigeria
ProvinceDelta State.
SiteEkpan Community, Uview Local Govt Area. Warri
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Gas flaring
Oil and gas refining
Specific Commodities
Crude oil
Project Details and Actors
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population20,000 to 40,000
Start Date1988
Company Names or State EnterprisesWarri Refinery and Petroleum Chemical Company (WRPC) from Nigeria - A Subsidiary of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Nigeria)
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) from Nigeria
Relevant government actorsNigerian National Petroleum Corporation.
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAjomata/ Awhakpor Landlord Association, Ekpan, Warri., Environmental Rights Action/ Friends of the Earth Nigeria.
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginUNKNOWN
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Informal workers
Local ejos
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationBoycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Genetic contamination, Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession
Potential: Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseUnder negotiation
Development of Alternatives1.NNPC /WRPC (Warri refinery and Petrochemical Company) should carry environmental impact assessment to ascertain the impact of the refinery on the environment, health and socioeconomic well-being of the people.

2.Government should order a complete Shut down of the refinery and Petrochemical Company, due to the dangerous emissions of Carbon Black, and since the management have refused to operate on international best practices.

Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The residents of Ajomata/ Awhakpor area have continuously appealed to the management and supervisory institutions of the Warri Refinery and Petrochemical company (WRPC)to stop the carbon emission and adopt international best practices. For many years, their complains have fallen on deaf ears, and nothing have been done to savage the present situation of the people.
Sources and Materials

NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulation Agency) has responsibility for the protection and development of the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of Nigerias natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and liaison with, relevant stakeholders within and outsider Nigeria on maters of enforcement of environmental standards, regulations, rules,laws policies and guidelines.


NESREA ACT, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. No.92, Vol 94. Lagos ,31st July, 2007.

Annual Statistical Bulletin: A publication of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, 2010.

WRPC News: An in house Bulletin of the Warri refinery and Petrochemical Company.


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Meta Information
ContributorGodwin Uyi Ojo
Last update08/04/2014