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Carbon Black emission from Warri Refinery, Nigeria


Warri Refinery and Petrochemical Company (WRPC) Limited is a subsidiary of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), incorporated in November, 1988, as a result of the merger of the Warri refinery and Ekpan Petroleum Chemical plant.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Carbon Black emission from Warri Refinery, Nigeria
State or province:Delta State.
Location of conflict:Ekpan Community, Uview Local Govt Area. Warri
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict: 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict: 2nd level :Gas flaring
Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Oil and gas refining
Specific commodities:
Crude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project details:

Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:20,000 to 40,000
Start of the conflict:1988
Company names or state enterprises:Warri Refinery and Petroleum Chemical Company (WRPC) from Nigeria - A Subsidiary of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Nigeria)
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) from Nigeria
Relevant government actors:Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Ajomata/ Awhakpor Landlord Association, Ekpan, Warri., Environmental Rights Action/ Friends of the Earth Nigeria.
Conflict and Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageUnknown
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Informal workers
Local ejos
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Impacts of the project
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Genetic contamination, Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession
Potential: Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Under negotiation
Development of alternatives:1.NNPC /WRPC (Warri refinery and Petrochemical Company) should carry environmental impact assessment to ascertain the impact of the refinery on the environment, health and socioeconomic well-being of the people.
2.Government should order a complete Shut down of the refinery and Petrochemical Company, due to the dangerous emissions of Carbon Black, and since the management have refused to operate on international best practices.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The residents of Ajomata/ Awhakpor area have continuously appealed to the management and supervisory institutions of the Warri Refinery and Petrochemical company (WRPC)to stop the carbon emission and adopt international best practices. For many years, their complains have fallen on deaf ears, and nothing have been done to savage the present situation of the people.
Sources and Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulation Agency) has responsibility for the protection and development of the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of Nigerias natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and liaison with, relevant stakeholders within and outsider Nigeria on maters of enforcement of environmental standards, regulations, rules,laws policies and guidelines.

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

NESREA ACT, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. No.92, Vol 94. Lagos ,31st July, 2007.

Annual Statistical Bulletin: A publication of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, 2010.

WRPC News: An in house Bulletin of the Warri refinery and Petrochemical Company.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

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Meta information
Contributor:Godwin Uyi Ojo
Last update08/04/2014
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