Cerro Matoso is the only mine that extracts iron and nickel in Colombia in open sky and one of the largest in the world, located at the North-West of the country, in the department of Córdoba. All the ore is mainly exported to Europe, the United States, China and Japan. Cerro Matoso begins with the contract between the Nation (Colombia) and Cerro Matoso (BHP Billiton who is currently owned by Cerro Matoso, and has several concessions in the Colombian territory in his power to explore and exploit the nickel deposits in Montelibano, signed On March 30, 1963 and in July 1970, an additional contract was signed that fixed it 25 more years of validity. In October 1996, it was extended for five more years.
On October 12, 2001, the mining company requested the Government a contract amendment to avail the new code of Mines After four years of negotiations, on July 22, 2005, a new contract was signed that left the possibility of requesting a new extension for 30 more years.
More beyond the negotiation between BHP Billiton and the Colombian State, it can be seen that for 30 years the municipality of Montelibano (including its inhabitants) have been limited to receiving royalties and has been a cause for investigation by the Comptroller General of the Republic It ensures that the debt of the company with the Colombian State is USD 30 million for the exploitation of iron ore. In addition, the company has not paid taxes every year and reports profits below the real ones.
The municipality of Montelibano shows the largest number of housing with ceilings and plastic walls, it is a country area with more dumps and cords of misery, the poorest sectors are Villa Cleme, 50 and El Porvenir.
corruption Administrative and weak institutions were factors that prevented the development of the municipality, as well as the absence of pertinent public policies to face the impacts of mining farm. The resources transferred for a royalty of the municipality have been scarce.
Another factor that aggravates the situation is the historical violence and the permanence of all the armed actors that clearly increase The social and financial imbalance in Montelibano. The project has managed a low profile in media and also as an object of environmental or social NGO assessment. It is likely that the fact of being a project where the ferronickel haven are relatively high and that the decapote material (CANGA) also has use causes less residues. However, the problems over water and air have been argued by mine workers and farmers of the area that show the detriment of environmental conditions such as deforestation in the river, the fall of rocks in the channel and the disappearance of the Fishing by shortage and water pollution, as well as particulate material, noise, metallic fumes, silices, radiation, among others.
Key Words: Open-Cast Mine, Export, Corruption, Violence, Deforestation, River Pollution