In 1990 the Ecuadorian government, through its oil company PETROECUADOR, announced its intention to construct a pipeline that had to traverse the Machalilla National Park (MNP) on the Ecuadorian coast, despite it being illegal. The project ignited strong opposition from one of the Comunas within the MNP, named Agua Blanca. The inhabitants of this Comuna, whose presence in the area preceds the declaration of the area as a national park (1979), have traditionally based their subsistence in the exploitation of the forest resources of the area. With the demarcation as a national park, these activities were forbidden. This obliged them to adopt more sustainable economic practices such as eco-tourism. Upon great efforts Agua Blanca managed to consolidate the touristic activity as one of their main sources of income. Thus, they considered the pipeline project as a threat to this. Above all, they feared that the trajectory of the pipeline would destroy diverse pre-columbine archaeological remains, which were key to their touristic activity. In this sense, the Communa tried to have a bearing on the final tracing of the pipeline in order to mitigate potential damages.