Mining-metallurgical complex in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

The attempt to set up a mining-mettalurgical pole in Corumbá increased deforestation for charcoal, impacting indigenous communities. The failure of the complex reduced the extraction of charcoal, but not the mining and its impacts to local communities.


The region of Corumba and

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Basic Data
NameMining-metallurgical complex in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
ProvinceMato Grosso do Sul
SiteCorumbá e Ladário
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Mineral processing
Specific CommoditiesManganese.
Iron ore
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe following companies operate or operated in Corumbá: i) Corumba Mineracao Ltda (COMIN), iron mining company linked to Vetiral Steel Group, that extracted about 432,000 tons/year in 2007, a significant part of the extracted ore is sent to the iron pig plant of Ribas do Rio Pardo; ii) Mineração e Metalicos do Brasil Ltda (MMX) has the potential to extract from 2.6 million tons/year of iron ore. In 2007, its steel unit started to operate, with a capacity of 375,000 t/year of pig iron and 400,000 tons/year of laminates, but was sold in 2009; iii) Mineracao Piramide Participacioes (MPP) had a experimental mine that announced production of 180,000 tons in 2007, reaching 1,440,000 tons/year; iii) Mineração Corumbaense Reunida (MCR) was a company of the multinational Rio Tinto – with production of 3 million tons in 2007, and allowed by IBAMA to explore up to 6 million tons/year – that was sold to Vale in 2009; iv) Vale, besides the MCR mine, control the Urucum Mineracao (UMSA), which produce around 2,500,000 tons/year of iron ore and 800,000 tons of manganese ore, besides of ferro-alloys based on the manganese v) Companhia Cimento Portland Itau, has a system that integrates a mine to a cement plant of Grupo Votorantim Cimentos, with limestone production of 550,000 tons/year and cement factory, 330,000 tons/year of clinker and 380.0000 t/yr of cement. All companies export the final product, whether in the form of iron ore, manganese, pig iron, hot-rolled, alloy, clinker or cement [5, 9, 10].
Project Area (in hectares)118000
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date2000
Company Names or State EnterprisesMineracao e Metalicos do Brazil Ltda (MMX) from Brazil
Corumba Mineracao Ltda (COMIN) from Brazil
Mineracao Piramide Participacioes (MPP) from Brazil
Mineracao Corumbaense Reunida (MCR) from Brazil
Rio Tinto (Rio Tinto ) from Australia
Vale (Vale) from Brazil - formerly named Companhia Vale do Rio Doce
Urucum Mineracao (UMSA) from Brazil
Rio Doce Mineracao (RDM) from Brazil
Companhia Cimento Portland Itau from Brazil
Grupo Votorantim Cimentos from Brazil
Relevant government actorsInstituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renovaveis - IBAMA, Polícia Federal , Ministerio Publico do Trabalho , Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAssociacao Civil Ecologia e Acao (ECOA), Rede Brasileira de Justica Ambiental (RBJA)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
Local ejos
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Referendum other local consultations
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Mine tailing spills
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths
Potential: Malnutrition, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseStrengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Problems arising from the extraction of charcoal have been reduced with the iron and steel complex crisis, but the problems stemming from growing mining persist.
Sources and Materials

MAPA DE CONFLITOS ENVOLVENDO INJUSTICA AMBIENTAL E SAUDE NO BRASIL. Carvao para Siderurgia e Mineracao ameaça terras indigenas, aguas, cerrado e matas do Pantanal.

[5] La Rovere, Emílio Lébre (Coord). Avaliacao Ambiental Estrategica do Polo Minero-Industrial de Corumba e influencias sobre a Planicie Pantaneira. Relatorio Executivo. Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente, Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE), Universidade do Brasil (UFRJ), ago. 2008.
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[7] Mota, A.C.F.D. Pólos Minero-Siderúrgicos no Brasil: A Contribuição da Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica no Caso de Corumbá. (Dissertação) Programa de Pós-graduação em Planejamento Energético (PPE), COPPE, da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Maio de 2009.
[click to view]

[13] Costa, E.A. Conflito pelas Terras e pelas Àguas: Notas das Relações entre Mineradoras e Proprietários Rurais em Corumbá. Geographia, v. 15, n. 30, 2013.
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[11] Vale. Vale completa 40 anos de operação no Mato Grosso do Sul. 8 abr. 2016.
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[14] Campo Grande News. Combate a carvão ilegal reverte desmatamento no Pantanal. 9 jun. 2010.
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[15] EcoDebate. MS: Comunidade prejudicada por mineradoras vai construir o próprio sistema de abastecimento de água em Corumbá. 30 abr. 2014.
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[2] Campo Grande News. IBAMA fecha carvoaria em terra indigena no Pantanal. Marta Ferreira. 29 nov. 2007. Disponivel em: Acesso em: 10 set. 2008.
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[3] Exame. MMX suspende producao de minerio de ferro em Corumba. Marcelle Gutierrez. 04 jul. 2013.
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[6] Campo Grande News. Funai diz que índios kadiwéu ocupam apenas uma fazenda no Pantanal. Geisy Garnes. 24 nov. 2017.
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[8] Vale. Vale conclui a aquisição de Corumbá. 18 set. 2009.
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[9] Valor. MMX conclui venda de fábrica no Mato Grosso do Sul. 15 set. 2009.
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[10] Vale. Conheça as minas do Sistema Centro-Oeste no Mato Grosso do Sul. 30 jun. 2014
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[12] Mato Grosso do Sul. Demanda mundial puxa exportações de minério de ferro do maciço de Urucum. Edmir Conceição dos Santos. 18 fev. 2018.
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[16] Midiamax. Denúncia atribui morte de peixes a vazamento em barragem da Vale. Catarine Sturza. 11 mar. 2016.
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[17] Imasul. Força-tarefa coordenada pelo Imasul vai a Corumbá nesta terça-feira vistoriar barragens. 28 jan. 2019.
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[1] Valor. IBAMA multa MMX por uso de carvao de origem ilegal. Bettina Barros. 08 fev. 2008.
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[4] Ecodebate IBAMA avalia danos ambientais ao Macico do Urucum pelos impactos da mineracao e de outras intervencoes industriais e agropecuarias na regiao.Mariza Pontes Oliveira. 07 fev. 2009.
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Other Documents

Antônio Maria Coelho, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul The traditional community Antônio Maria Coelho affected by Vale operations in Corumbá
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Maciço do Urucum in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul Maciço do Urucum, where is located the Urucum Mine of Vale
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorDiogo Rocha
Last update12/03/2019