Dar es Salaam water management, Tanzania


Tanzania government decided to overhaul the water and sewerage infrastructure of Dar es Salaam with funding from the World Bank, due to the bad condition of the water services at that time. To receive this funding, Tanzania was required to award this work to a private contractor. In 2003 the project was awarded to BGT. BGT is a joint venture created by Biwater International Limited and HP Gauff Ingenieure GmbH & Co. for the purposes of the Tanzanian project; Biwater owns 80% of BGT and Gauff owns 20%.

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Basic Data
NameDar es Salaam water management, Tanzania
ProvinceDar es Salaam
SiteDar es Salaam
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Water Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific CommoditiesWater
Project Details and Actors
Level of Investment (in USD)143000000
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population100,000 - 3,000,000
Start Date02/2003
Company Names or State EnterprisesBiwater Gauff Ltd. from Tanzania - joint venture between Biwater International and HP Gauff Ingenieure GmbH & Co
HP Gauff Ingenieure GmbH & Co from Germany
Biwater International Ltd from United Kingdom
Dar es Salaam Water Supply and Sanitation Project
Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Corporation (DAWASCO) from Tanzania
Relevant government actorsTanzania Government, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, National Urban Water Authority
International and Financial InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) from United States of America
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersLawyers’ Environmental Action Team, Legal and Human Rights Centre, Tanzania Gender Networking Programme, Center for International Environmental Law, International Institute for Sustainable Development
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingInternational ejos
Local government/political parties
Forms of MobilizationLawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Groundwater pollution or depletion
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Violations of human rights
OtherNo improvements for water users
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseEnvironmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Negotiated alternative solution
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Development of AlternativesPublic and participatory management of water services
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.Although the arbitral tribunal tribunal declared that the Tanzanian Government had violated the terms of its bilateral investment treaty with the UK, it declined to award BGT the monetary damages requested.

Regarding the todays public management of water under DAWASCO, inner workings and institutional and political environment only suggests that although formally owned by the government and formally a ‘public’ company, DAWASCO is far from being a public entity politically accountable to,

and directed by, users. Improvements are still to be made and the Tanzanian government is legally required to implement international donors’ policy recommendations and conditions. Favorable condition to achieve this goals are all there.
Sources and Materials

(also in attachement)
[click to view]

Putting Water Back into Public Hands

(1) Remunicipalisation:

Edited by Martin Pigeon, David A. McDonald, Olivier Hoedeman and Satoko Kishimoto


More information available here:
[click to view]

Media Links

Video: Remunicipalisation: Putting Water Back into Public Hands
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorElodie Aba
Last update16/10/2014