Iron sand mining in Watu Pecak Beach, Indonesia

Envrionmental activist killed for protesting against the iron sand mining in the coast of Selok Awar-Awar Village, Lumajang Regency, East Java. This is the first case of an environmental activist being murdered in East Java.


According to the organization Walhi, 13 companies have been granted sand- and gravel-mining concessions by state-owned forestry firm Perhutani, which owns the land”. Each of the 13 companies holds a concession with an average area of 5,000 hectares. The site where the villagers staged their rally belongs to PT Indo Multi Mineral Sejahtera, which holds a concession to operate mining activities on a 4,000 ha plot of land [3].

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Basic Data
NameIron sand mining in Watu Pecak Beach, Indonesia
ProvinceLumajang, East Java
SiteSelok Awar-Awar
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific Commoditiesiron sand
Sand, gravel
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsPT Indo Multi Mineral Sejahtera holds a concession to operate mining activities on a 4,000 ha plot of land.

Based on 2010 data from the Indonesian Department of Transportation, more than 500 sand trucks with a capacity of 3-16 tonnes leave Lumajang every day. This iron sand is mostly mined illegally - miners often don’t have proper permits; or if they do, have obtained the permits illegally; or otherwise inconsistent mining and land regulations and poor management of licensing systems favours corrupt government officials [1].
Project Area (in hectares)5,000
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date13/09/2015
Company Names or State EnterprisesPT Indo Multi Mineral Sejahtera from Indonesia
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersForum of Concerned Citizens of the Selok Awar-Awar Coastal Village


Indonesian Forum for the Environment (Walhi)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Development of a network/collective action
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Food insecurity (crop damage)
Health ImpactsVisible: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Potential: Accidents
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights
Potential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseDeaths
Violent targeting of activists
The death of Salim Kancil (46) and persecution against Tosan (30), farmers from Selok Awar Awar Village, Pasiran Regency, Lumajang East Java [1]
Do you consider this as a success?No
Sources and Materials

[4] Tidal Flood Surround the Coastal of Lumajang
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[2] Killing and Brutal Torture of Farmer, Antimining Activist in East Java (from International People's Conference on Mining -IPCM 2015)
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Walhi: Foreign Stake at Lumajang Sand Mine (2015)
[click to view]

Mining conflicts in Lumajang, Indonesia (18/01/2017)
[click to view]

Police Claims to Arrest Mining Activist Murder Mastermind (29/09/2017)
[click to view]

[3] Antimining activist beaten to death in East Java
[click to view]

[1] Salim Kancil, Tortured and Murdered in Agrarian Conflict (30/09/2015)
[click to view]

Other Documents

[click to view]

Source: TEMPO/Aris Novia Hidayat Solidarity act with murder of the activist Salim on Saturday, September 26, 2015
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSM (ICTA-UAB)
Last update07/08/2017