Ghaghoo mine diamond extraction in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

After years of bushmen's struggle to defend the access to their territory, an open diamond pit opened in 2014, theatening their traditional livelihoods.


The Botswanan Government granted concessions for mineral exploration to diamond companies over an area encompassing the entire ancestral territories of the Gana and Gwi Bushmen, living in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. The majority of the Bushmen were forced to re-locate, and denounced the threats, persecution and torture they suffered. The bushmens main borehole was cut off so as to forcibly evict them. Despite a ruling by the Botswanan high court in 2006 that the eviction was unlawful, the borehole remained closed and the judge dismissed their case to access water inside the reserve in 2010. Finally in January 2011 Botswanas Court of Appeal overturned the decision and condemned the governments degrading treatment of the Bushmen. The diamond project, valued at 3.3 billion dollars, remained on hold until 2014. In September 2014, opened the Ghaghoo diamond mine.

Basic Data
NameGhaghoo mine diamond extraction in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Mineral processing
Specific CommoditiesLand
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsDiamonds deposits are valued at 3.3 billion USD. Ghaghoo mine is owned by Gem Diamonds. Opened, in 2014, its worth is

estimated to $4.9 billion.
Level of Investment (in USD)2000000
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date1986
Company Names or State EnterprisesBHP Billiton (BHP) from Australia
Debswana from Botswana
De Beers from South Africa - based in Luxembourg
Motapa Diamonds from Canada
Gem Diamonds
Petra Diamonds - based in Jersey
Coal and Gas Corp
Tlou Energy from Australia
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Botswana.
International and Financial InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersFirst People of the Kalahari - Botswana, Survival International NGO - Italy
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of MobilizationInvolvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Mine tailing spills
Health ImpactsVisible: Malnutrition, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Potential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Infectious diseases, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (victory for environmental justice)
In spite of favourable court decision for the local inhabitants, a diamond open pit is in activity since 2014 .
Development of AlternativesThey wanted access to water and the right to hunt and freely gather fruits in the reserve as they did before the mine activity.
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The High Court of Botswana ruled that the displacement of the Bushmen is unlawful and unconstitutional and accorded them full rights to re-enter and live in their territory. In 2011, they won the right to access the borehole. But in 2014 a diamond mine was inaugurated in the CKG Reserve while in the beginning of 2015 the government grated licenses for gas explorations.
Sources and Materials

Conflict Diamonds. Global Witness Campaign
[click to view]

Diamonds, Gold and War. Meredith, Martin. Ed. Public Affairs, 2007
[click to view]

Blood Diamonds. Tracing the Deadly Path of the Worlds Most Precious Stone. Campbell, Greg. Ed. Carocci, 2005

L'Africa del tesoro. Masto, Raffaele. Ed. Sperling and Kupfer. 2006
[click to view]

Rich Man, Poor Man. Development diamonds and poverty diamonds: the potential for change in the artisanal alluvial diamonds fields of Africa. Autori Vari, 2004
[click to view]

Botswana, Gobal Witness Reports
[click to view]

Timeline leading to the opening of the Ghaghoo mine in 2014, Survival
[click to view]


Botswana: la lotta dei Boscimani e il muro di ferro, 04/10/2004
[click to view]

Botswana: Boscimani vincono la causa, appello a Di Caprio, 13/12/2006
[click to view]

Bushmen aren't forever - Bostwana : diamonds in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve ad the eviction of Bushmen, Survival International, September 2006
[click to view]

Botswana government lies exposed as diamond mine opens on Bushman land, Survival, 4/09/2014
[click to view]

Gem Diamonds officla web page: Operations in Botswana
[click to view]

Botswana grants gas exploration rights in Kalahari, 12/02/2015
[click to view]

Other Documents

Ghaghoo mine, close to the CKG Reserve, open since 2014 Survival International
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorLucie Greyl
Last update04/01/2016