Commercial mining has been taking place in Penhalonga since the 1880s. This has been mainly underground mining which did not disrupt normal life. However, about 6 years ago a new company, DTZ OZGEO started alluvial gold mining in Penhalonga. There was land conflict after the company grabbed some plots of land which had been used to cultivate crops by the local community. There was no compensation for the lost land. Families complain of loss of livelihoods. However, more worrying is the manner in which DTZ OZGEO has polluted Mutare River which cuts across Penhalonga. The river has been shifted its course for over 10 times in the past 5 years. This has resulted in the water becoming muddy. The other problem with the DTZ OZGEO operations is the wanton duistruction of vegetation. The company has mined over an area of 4.5KM2 using open cast mining. The area is also prone to conflict between DTZ OZGEO and artisanal miners. The company, which has strong ties with state security agents, has sometimes used violence against artisanal miners. Artisanal miners also use ‘hit and run’ methods of gold panning and do not fill the galleys after digging.