Huaining County is located in the southwest of Anhui Province, under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Anqing.  In recent years, the investment of enterprises has brought economic benefits to the region, which was also closely related to the promotion of the local government. However, besides economic development, enterprises like Anqing Borui Battery Co., Ltd. also brought pollution to the area. 
On December 23, 2010, three children from Xinshan Community of Gaohe Town in Huaining County were found to have excessive blood lead levels (BLLs) in Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital. After that, the Huaining County government organized 206 children to go to the Provincial Children's Hospital for blood lead test, and many of them were detected with BLLs over 100 ug/L, which belonged to mild lead poisoning (100 ug/L – 200 ug/L). 28 children had moderate lead poisoning (200 ug/L – 450 ug/L).  As of January 5, 2011, 307 children took the test, in which 228 children were diagnosed with excessive blood lead (over 100 ug/L), and 23 of them were hospitalized with the youngest aged 9 months. Five more children were on the waiting list for hospitalization. 
On January 6, 2011, the government of Huaining County found that the excessive BLL was caused by Borui Battery Co., Ltd. and another company (the name was not declared) after supervision.  The company violated the Law of Environmental Protection which stated that “Installations for the prevention and control of pollution at a construction project must be designed, built and commissioned together with the principal part of the project.”  In the report provided by the Environmental Protection Bureau of Huaining County, it was found that as early as December 2008, Borui Battery Company was approved with ‘trial’ production, although the 500-meter distance for sanitary protection was not reached.  In its later production process, the company had been punished for other violations and ordered to suspend production for rectification several times. In September 2010, the provincial, municipal and county environmental protection authorities issued a server “penalty” to the company after the lead-related inspection; in November of the same year, the Anhui Provincial Environmental Protection Department requested either that the local residents be removed and compensated, or that the company should be suspended or relocated. Then Borui officially “stopped” production. Even so, before the blood poisoning incident was disclosed at the end of December 2010, the company was still in secrete production according to local residents, until it was forced to power off in December 24, 2010. 
The first phase of the battery project of Borui started in October 2006. In the assessment by the Environmental Protection Bureau in 2007, there was no residential buildings within 500 meters of its site. And according to the urban planning of 2003, the project area should be “non-residential land”. However, in 2006, the Xinshan community for the resettlement of peasants began its construction, it was just 60 to 70 meters away from the battery factory with a road in separation. 
According to the Environmental Protection Bureau of Huaining County, they were not informed that land use type was changed from "non-residential" to "residential" in this area. The time that people began to move into the community was after the project was approved for trial production. Huaining County also confirmed that the construction of the project was in October 2006, and at that time, the use type of the land around the battery plant was not clearly declared. The agreement of the construction of the Xinshan community was signed in December 2006, and the construction started in the first half of 2007. In 2008, residents moved into the community. As for why the community was built in the industrial zone, especially near the battery factory, according to the government of Huaining County, the reason was that people would like to live close to the factory so that they could increase their income through doing some small business. While according to the residents of Xinshan Community, some claimed that they did not know the nearby factory was producing batteries when they moved in.  Residents said that when there was wind from the southeast, the lead powder would float to the residential area. And in the morning when the factory was in emission, the lead powder was like fog. And if they have known this, they would not have moved into the community. According to some workers of the company, there was also the issue of lead pollution during production, but no blood test was done for them during their working periods, while a manager from Borui said the company provided medical check every year for the workers and the excessive BLLs had never been found, they also claim that the blood lead poisoning may come from unclean food and exhaust of cars. 
Besides the questioning land use, the identification and recognition of excessive BLLs of children was also questionable. The test results from the Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital and the Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention conflicted with each other. There were 23 children who were collected the peripheral blood by the Provincial Children's Hospital and found to have excessive BLLs. While on January 5, the Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that the BLLs of them were within the normal range through testing the venous blood.  A doctor from the Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital said that the method of collecting blood by vein was more precise.  But which test result should be trusted? According to the Anhui Provincial Health Department, both institutions had testing qualifications, and the two different testing methods were recognized by the national health department. The Provincial Health Department asked the two institutions to re-examine their testing methods and testing instruments. If there was no problem, the department would consider looking for a third-party to verify the test results. 
On January 6, an expert group was established to communicate with the parents about the next treatment plan for their children. Some parents denied the therapy proposed by the hospital. "My daughter is only 4 years old. She has already suffered from the poison of lead. And we are not sure whether she can bear the medical therapy because she is too young."  The young parent said with anxiety.
The worry of some parents was reasonable: some children in the hospital had serious clinical manifestations.  Some were very tempered and hyperactive, and often yell loudly. Some easily got sick and had a stomachache.  There are mainly three routs of getting lead poisoning - through the digestive system, respiratory system, and/or the skin. The most vulnerable people are usually children, because the lead dust floats about 1 meter above the ground, which is just the breathing height of children. Excessive BLL can damage their nervous system and seriously affect the intelligence. 
Some other children who had symptoms of abnormal BLLs and should have been admitted to the hospital for treatment were still at their home in Xinshan Community, because their parents were migrant workers and the local government would not pay for the treatment of these children.  According to some migrant workers, when recruiting staff, the company did not want to include the local residents as well as the unmarried workers, which made people suspect that the work would affect their health. 
Since December 24, 2010, the Education Department of Huaining County designated teachers to give classes on weekends and holidays for students who were left behind in hospitalization due to excessive BLLs.  An epidemiological survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Huaining County was conducted, and the Environmental Protection Department of Huaining also carried out an environmental survey over the surrounding areas of the battery company. In addition, the Health and Environmental Protection Departments of Anhui and Anqing City sent professional and technical personnel to form an expert group to further test and investigate the environmental quality of the region as well as the issue on excessive BLLs of children. 
On January 13, 2011, 10 responsible persons were punished from administrative warnings to removal from the office, including the leaders of Huaining County and Anqing city, and the institute which made the Environmental Impact Assessment for the battery project.  The Borui company was halted for its illegal production and lead pollution.  The compensation and treatment for the children with excessive blood lead was discussed but detailed information was not accessible. The expert guided the treatment of children’s blood lead. There is no more information about the blood lead of adults especially the workers of the battery company, although some workers also worried about the high levels of blood lead.  However, people demanded the government to solve the lead poisoning issue from the root. The other factory which was reported to be also related to the lead pollution was still in operation according to the latest news available. 
China is the world's largest producer and consumer of lead, a key component in the lead-acid batteries needed for the growing number of cars and electric bikes in the country.