Gitwilgyoots and Lelu Island (Lax U'u'la) vs proposed Petronas LNG export facility, Canada

Gitwilgyoots (Lax Kwalaams Tsimshian First Nation) vs Petronas (Malaysian fossil fuel company) occupation of traditional territories to block major $30 billion LNG export facility in critical salmon habitat of the Skeena River.


Petronas, a Malaysian fossil fuel company, has a proposal for a $40 billion natural gas export facility on Lelu Island (Lax U'u'la in the Tsimshian language). The current BC Liberal party government headed by Christy Clark has been 100% behind all energy development, especially fracked gas.  The current federal Liberal party (led by Justin Trudeau) has fallen in line, supporting oil and gas against First Nations wishes, both generally and in this specific case. While fracking has widespread resistance in Canada, this project is particularly resisted because of its location.  Around Lelu Island is an eel grass habitat (the Flora Banks) which is essential for the transition of salmon from freshwater to saltwater.  Approximately 90% of the salmon of the Skeena River (the third largest salmon river in the world by number of salmon) spend their transition phase in this habitat, which scientists have shown would be obliterated by the changes in tidal flows caused by the construction of this export facility. The salmon population of the Skeena would be devastated. Because of its inevitable impact on the salmon, there is widespread resistance from communities and activist groups throughout the Skeena watershed and amongst fishermen of the region, the majority of whose salmon come from the Skeena.

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Basic Data
NameGitwilgyoots and Lelu Island (Lax U'u'la) vs proposed Petronas LNG export facility, Canada
ProvinceBritish Columbia
SiteLelu Island
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Oil and gas refining
Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Ports and airport projects
Shale gas fracking
Land acquisition conflicts
Aquaculture and fisheries
Gas flaring
Water access rights and entitlements
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Invasive species
Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Specific CommoditiesNatural Gas
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsCH4: The facility would produce as much as 19.2 million metric tons a year of LNG and open up a new trade route for Canadian gas to be shipped to Asia.

CO2 Emissions: Petrons's Pacific Northwest LNG would annually emit between 11.5 and 14 megatonnes, including upstream emissions

The plant has been demonstrated in the company's own tidal flow models to destroy the critical eel grass salmon habitat of the Flora Banks, one of the largest salmon rivers in the world. 90% of salmon leaving the Skeena spend their transition phase in the Flora Banks. Between 300 million and 1 billion juvenile salmon leave the Skeena each year, and 3 million to 10 million adults return each year.

(Note, the "100,000 people affected" to the right is a ballpark number of the people who have direct connections in terms of food, business, or identity to the salmon of the Skeena River. The actual number of people affected by this project is much larger, in terms of both impacts on the salmon and impacts on climate change, among other impacts.)
Project Area (in hectares)100
Level of Investment (in USD)40,000,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population100,000
Start Date01/09/2015
End Date25/07/2017
Company Names or State EnterprisesPETRONAS from Malaysia
Relevant government actorsBC Liberals (Christy Clark- premier)

Liberal Party (Justin Trudeau - prime minister)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersGitwilgyoots clan of the Tsimshian:

Skeena Wild:

Skeena Watershed Conservation Coalition:

Friends of Wild Salmon:
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Social movements
Recreational users
Local scientists/professionals
The Tsimshian First nation
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationAppeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Development of a network/collective action
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Public campaigns
Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Official complaint letters and petitions
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Noise pollution, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
OtherMany concerns, but the biggest concern specific to this LNG plant is its placement on critical salmon habitat for the 3rd largest salmon bearing river in the world.
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
OtherThese boom/bust projects have many health and social impacts associated with temporary man-camps
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Land demarcation
Court decision (undecided)
Strengthening of participation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Project cancelled
Withdrawal of company/investment
Petronas announced a decision to not pursue the project on July 25, 2017
Development of AlternativesThe First Nations communities don't want the project. "Life as is is just fine."
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.It has mobilized Gitwilgyoots to firmly claim their territorial rights. It is a crime that Gitwilgyoots and activists had to waste so much resources to prevent the project, but they were successful in preventing it. In a more just world Petronas would have to reimburse the community for forcing them to waste so much of their lives in resistance.
Sources and Materials

Delgamuukw v British Columbia Supreme Court ruling 1997: most BC First Nations never signed treaties and are recognized as having sovereign rights. The proper representatives are the traditional governments, not the imposed Indian Act band council governments. The government mus consult with these nations before any development happens on their land
[click to view]

Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia 2014: Consultation means prior free and informed consent
[click to view]


Carr-Harris, C., Gottesfeld, A. S., & Moore, J. W. (2015). Juvenile Salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary. PLoS ONE, 10(3), 1–14.

details juvenile salmon use of the Flora Banks and its critical nature for Skeena salmon


Kelly, A., & Brielle Morgan. (2016). Divide and Conquer: The Threatened Community at the Heart of the PNW LNG Project. Discourse Media, pp. 1–13.
[click to view]

Desmog blog on dynamics of the conflict and Petronas final decision to cancel
[click to view]

CBC article on final Petronas decision to withdraw
[click to view]

website on interconnecting issues of First Nations sovereignty and environmental fights against extractivist industries in BC, Canada.
[click to view]

Media Links

site for the occupation of Lelu Island and how to support
[click to view]

Other Documents

Sockeye Smolt in Eelgrass by Brian Huntington
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorKarl Frost, PhD, Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Last update26/07/2017
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