Hunter Valley Coal, New South Wales, Australia

Communities, Greens Party, health professionals and local government councillors contest coal production in the Hunter Valley. Activist Wendy Bowman is 2017 Goldman Prize Recipient for Islands and Island Nations


The Climate and Health Alliance are calling for the end of all coal expansion projects in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia, stronger regulation of current operations and a transition plan for affected communities. These calls are not new in the Hunter Valley; however mobilisation against the coal industry is increasing due to the considerable expansion of coal production over the last decade, concern about health and environmental impacts including the contribution of coal consumption to climate change and proposals for at least 21 additional mines.

See more...
Basic Data
NameHunter Valley Coal, New South Wales, Australia
ProvinceNew South Wales
SiteHunter Valley
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Coal extraction and processing
Specific CommoditiesCoal
Project Details and Actors
Project Details- 145 million tonnes of coal is produced in the Hunter Valley annually (Hannam 2015)

- 126 million tonnes is exported (Hannam 2015)

- 19 million tonnes is consumed in the Hunter Valley (Climate and Health Alliance 2015)

- The coal industry contributes $6.3b per annum based on 2012/13 to the New South Wales economy (The Centre for International Economics 2014)

- The coal industry employs 18,321 people (The Centre for International Economics 2014)

- Coal production in the Hunter Valley is projected to expand dramatically by 2022 with at least 21 additional mines proposed (Climate and Health Alliance 2015), which would bring coal production to 243 million tonnes (Hannam 2015)
Project Area (in hectares)2,914,500
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population664,255 residents in Hunter Valley (The Centre for International Economics 2014)
Start Date01/08/2010
Company Names or State EnterprisesBHP Billiton (BHP) from Australia
Peabody Energy from United States of America
Rio Tinto PLC from Australia
Glencore-Xstrata from Switzerland
Shenhua Watermark from China
Vale (Vale) from Brazil
Vale Australia from Australia - From Vale's website: "Investment in the coal business is an important part of Vale’s broader growth strategy and the Australian coal business has an important role to play in delivering the goals of the global business. We have a strong pipeline of greenfield exploration projects in the Bowen and Galilee Basins, and a number of pipeline projects on the cards in Queensland. Key projects for Vale Coal Australia include: Belvedere Coal Project Located near Moura and approximately 175 kilometres from the Port of Gladstone, Vale owns 100% of the Belvedere Coal Project. The project – planned to be developed as an underground longwall operation – has immense potential, offering a large, good quality, metallurgical coal resource. Eagle Downs Coki​ng Coal Project The Eagle Downs Coking Coal Project – for which Vale has a 50% stake – is an approved underground longwall coal mine project, currently under construction, located approximately 20 kilometres southeast of Moranbah in Queensland’s Bowen Basin. It’s estimated that when completed the Eagle Downs Coal Mine will produce an average of 4.5Mtpa of product coking coal in the first ten years of full production from one underground longwall (2017 – 2026).​​" Other projects owned by Vale are: Carborough Downs, Isaac Plains.
Relevant government actorsThe New South Wales government

o Sets mining policy for the assessment and development of proposals through the State Environmental Planning Policy (Mining, Petroleum Production and Extractive Industries) 2007 (Mining SEPP)

o Sets policy for the management of noise and dust through the Voluntary Land Acquisition and Mitigation Policy

o Releases coal and petroleum prospecting titles through the Preliminary Regional Issues Assessment for Potential Coal and Petroleum Exploration Release Areas

New South Wales Environment Protection Agency, regulates and monitors environmental impacts including air quality, and responds to incidents

The Federal government, through a range of policies and legislation including environmental standards through National Environment Protection Measures (NEPM)
Environmental justice organisations and other supporters- Climate and Health Alliance,

- New South Wales Conservation Council,

- Transition Network, (Coal Point 2009 and Newcastle 2008) (Connor 2012)

- Climate Action Newcastle

- Climate Action Lake Macquarie, (Newcastle 2006 and Lake Macquarie 2007) (Connor 2012)

- Rising Tide Australia, (Newcastle 2004) (Connor 2012)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Other Health impacts
Other– Cardio-vascular and lung disorders (Hannam 2015)

– Distress from social disruption, environmental harm and concern for future generations (Climate and Health Alliance 2015)

– Social conflict from inequitable compensation, pay (Climate and Health Alliance 2015) and advocacy for or against coal

– Sense of being abandoned and disempowered by the government (Climate and Health Alliance 2015)

– Anxiety about health impacts (Climate and Health Alliance 2015)
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Other socio-economic impacts
OtherEconomic burdens (Climate and Health Alliance 2015)
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseStrengthening of participation
Development of AlternativesThe Climate and Health Alliance recommendations are:

- “A ban on new coal projects in the Hunter Valley

- The development of a transition plan to assist the region develop new industries as coal is phased out

- Stronger regulation of any projects in the planning pipeline to adequately evaluate and limit health, climate, and environmental damages

- Stricter air quality standards and monitoring of all coal sources, with data publicly available

- Increased consultation with communities affected by coal projects

- The implementation of mandatory health impact assessments as part of all project assessment processes still in the planning phase

- Comprehensive health research studies to evaluate:

the environmental health risks faced by local communities from exposure to pollutants associated with the coal industry, and the social impacts associated with disruption to communities, to landscapes, ecosystems and other industries” (Climate and Health Alliance 2015, p.4).

ENGOs advocate for a rapid transition to renewable energy.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.ENGOs and activist stakeholders are still fighting for a just transition from coal, better regulation and protection of the health of both people and the environment, in a political environment that is supportive of coal.
Sources and Materials

Higginbotham, N. Freeman, S. Connor, L. and Albrecht, G., (2009) “Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia”, Health and Place, Vol. 16 No. 2

Connor, L. H., (2012), “Experimental Publics: Activist Culture and Political Intelligibility of Climate Change Action in the Hunter Valley, Southeast Australia”, Oceania, 82: 228-249

Evans, G., and Phelan, L., (2016), “Transition to a post-carbon society: Linking environmental justice and just transition discourses”, Energy Policy, (in press)

The health burden of fine particle pollution

from electricity generation in NSW

Dr Ben Ewald B.Med, PhD

November 2018
[click to view]


Hannam, P., (2015), “Hunter Valley coal's annual health bill $600 million, doctors groups say”, [online], The Sydney Morning Herald,, [accessed 23 November 2016]
[click to view]

New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, (2015), “Minimising particulate pollution from coal mines”, [online], NSW EPA website,, [accessed 11 December 2016]
[click to view]

New South Wales Planning and Environment, (2016), “Mining and Resources”, [online], NSW Planning & Environment website,, [accessed 11 December 2016]
[click to view]

[1] Wendy Bowman - 2017 Goldman Prize Recipient

Islands and Island Nations
[click to view]

Coal-fired power station health study prompts calls for pollution monitoring and modern emissions controls

By Kate Cowling

Posted 5 Dec 2018
[click to view]

Media Links

Centre for International Economics, (2014), The contribution of mining to the New South Wales economy, Prepared for The NSW Minerals Taskforce, 16 September 2014,, [accessed 10 December 2016]
[click to view]

Climate and Health Alliance, (2015), Coal and Health in the Hunter: Lessons from one valley for the world, [online],, [accessed 23 November 2016]
[click to view]

Other Documents

Liddell Power Station in the Hunter Valley. Photo: Jonathan Carroll. Published in: Hannam, P., (2015), “Hunter Valley coal's annual health bill $600 million, doctors groups say”, [online], The Sydney Morning Herald,, [accessed 23 November 2016]
[click to view]

New South Wales open pit coal mining Source: Goldman Environmental Prize 2017
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorAustralian Environmental Justice Project, Lisa de Kleyn, PhD Candidate, RMIT University, [email protected],
Last update25/02/2019