Chevron's partnership with the people and the Government of Indonesia can be traced back to 1924, when the Standard Oil Company of California (Socal), now Chevron, dispatched a geological expedition to the island of Sumatra.  Its oil production began in 1952 and it remained active in Indonesia throughout the infamously brutal and repressive decades of the Suharto dictatorship (1965-1998). The majority of Chevron’s oil production has, and continues to take place in the Riau province in the center of the Sumatra Island, where it operates four onshore blocks, the largest of which, the Duri field, is one of the world’s giant oilfields and the one of the largest steamflood operations.  Through its subsidiaries, PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Chevron Indonesia Company, it conducts oil and gas operations. Chevron also manages geothermal projects through Chevron Geothermal Indonesia, Ltd., and Chevron Geothermal Salak, Ltd., in Indonesia. It also sells lubricants in Indonesia through its subsidiary PT Chevron Oil Products Indonesia.  Chevron’s Riau production has been plagued by economic injustice, environmental destruction, and the dislocation and disenfranchisement of Indigenous populations. As a result, citizen resistance to Chevron has been a constant of life in Riau, often taking the form of massive protests against the company, with protestors at times numbering in the tens of thousands. Chevron has employed brutal measures to quiet protests, including utilizing Indonesia’s notorious security services, bringing charges of human rights abuse, violence and intimidation. For example, WALHI - Friends of the Earth Indonesia denounced many such facts in a 2011 report. They describe for example collusions between the company and special forces in Indonesia: on 27 January 2000 Chevron paid the BRIMOB to overcome a series of actions and protests over land disputes and employment . The BRIMOB are well-known for extreme human rights violations, including kidnapping, rape, torture, indiscriminate violence and murder. As a result of the brutality of BRIMOB, 15 people involved in the protests against Chevron were wounded and five were hospitalized. The report goes on with a protest action happened September 14th, 2009, when Mr. Darmaidi, a local sand miner, climbed atop a Chevron high-voltage electricity tower in Pematang Pudu and he sought to commit suicide from atop Chevron’s tower. Only the supportive words of neighbors brought him down safely. The reason was he was unable to work on his land because, he contended, it had been contaminated by Chevron’s oil. Two months earlier, Darmiadi sent a letter to Chevron asking the company to take responsibility. The company denied responsibility and his request, and further argued that because Chevron owned part of his land, Darmaidi should not be sand mining on the land anyway.