The construction of the 330 x 3 MW coal-fired power plant (PLTU) in Indramayu started in 2007, and four years later it was put in operation. While being operated by the government-owned company PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN), it was financed through a loan from a consortium of public and private lenders led by Bank of China . Surrounding communities have suffered severe livelihood losses resulting from the operations of the plant, and the preceding construction process. These include respiratory diseases, diminishing yields and reduced catches of fish and shrimp. Farming and fishing have historically been the most important income-bringing activities for the residents of Indramayu, but these have become increasingly unviable due to pollution and large-scale acquisition of productive farmland .
In the end of 2015, the Indonesian president announced that the Indramayu facility would be expanded by adding another coal-fired plant (PLTU II) with a capacity of 2 x 1000 MW just adjacent to the existing plant (PLTU 1). The local residents and supporting NGOs claim the process of public consultation to have been inadequate, since not all affected residents were invited, which is a legal requirement. Further, the Land Aqcuisition Plan (LAP) was not prepared until after the acquisition process had started, contradicting principles of public participation and transparency . The construction of the plant is currently prepared for, and a loan has been granted to the Indonesian Government by the Japan International Development Agency (JICA) that will cover the expansion costs  . Mobilization against the PLTUs have taken various forms. Much of the resistance has been organized by the local group Jaringan Tanpa Asap Batubara Indramayu (JATAYU) (in English: Indramayu Coal Smokeless Network). In 2017, JATAYU filed a lawsuit against the environmental permit granted for PLTU II, motivated by the increased health risks it would entail, as well as the lack of community consultation. The administrative court ruled in favour of the community, and the permit was revoked . However, both the High Court and the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the company. However, JATAYU is now in the process of filing a verdict review . Many protest actions in response to the project has been seen locally; at the construction site and at the PLN office in Bandung. Some villagers have also travelled to Jakarta to protest outside the presidential office and the Japanese embassy . In 2017, some JATAYU members joined with a few residents from the Cirabon Regency and representatives from The Indonesian Forum for Environment (WALHI) to protest outside the Japanese Government in Tokyo . In Tokyo, a petition signed by 280 CSOs from 47 countries was submitted in, which appealed to JICA not to grant the Indonesian Government a loan for the construction of neither the new 1000 MW plant in Cirebon, nor the one in Indramayu . In April 2019, another coalition of JATAYU and WALHI members went to Tokyo once again to submit yet another letter to the Japanese Government, asking for a withdrawal of funds . To calm on-site protests, PT PLN has hired a military officials and police officers . Further, criminalization of activists has been seen; in December 2017, the three Indramayu residents Sawin (50), Sukma (35) and Nanto (41) were arrested, accused of having insulted the Indonesian flag by raising it upside down in a protest. After having been held for 23 hours, all three were released. However, in September 2018 they were detained again, and sentenced to between 5 and 6 months in prison. Further, four villagers were detained and later sentenced to 6 months in prison for involvement in acts of violence against one of the sub-contractors of PT PLN  .
PLTU II is planned to commence its operations in 2026, and the construction is planned to start in 2022 . As such, the project is still in the preparation phase, awaiting all necessary permits to be granted. However, as early as in 2018, the company illegally started the land preparation for the project. In April 2018, WALHI submitted a complaint to the local environment authority, which resulted in PT PLN receiving a warning, and were asked to wait for the permit to be granted. However, the company continued delivering construction materials to the area despite this .
In June 2022, Japan announced it would stop providing yen loans for the construction of coal-fired electricity plants in Indonesia . The policy reversal regarding the construction of the Indramayu plant is considered part of Japan's efforts aimed at accelerating a global phase-out of coal .(See less)