Chunar Cement Factory in Mirzapur, UP, India


Chunar Cement Factory (CCF) of Jaypee Group is located at Chunar, District Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh. After being closed in 1998 due to huge losses, the factory was reopened in 2008 after an investment Rs 1,100 crore by the JP Associates [1].

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Basic Data
NameChunar Cement Factory in Mirzapur, UP, India
ProvinceUttar Pradesh
SiteTown- Chunar; District- Mirzapur
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Water access rights and entitlements
Land acquisition conflicts
Other industries
Specific CommoditiesWater
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe group initiates the factory in 2008 with an initial production capacity of 1.5Mta of cement. However, they have a plan to enhance the capacity of 3Mta by 2010 [1].

Now the total cement generation capacity of the plant is about 2.50 MnTPA.

The company also planned to set up coal-based captive power plants at Chunar of 27MW and 38MW respectively to make these cement plants most cost effective. [4].
Level of Investment (in USD)$179,232,441 (Rs 1,100 Crore)
Type of PopulationUrban
Start Date2009
Company Names or State EnterprisesJP Associates from India - the cement division of Jaypee Group (India)
Jaypee Group from India
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Uttar Pradesh, UP Pollution Control Board
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersJan Samasya Nivaran Samiti, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist), Kisan Sabha
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Industrial workers
Informal workers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Dharna, "sit in protest"
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Groundwater pollution or depletion, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Air pollution
Potential: Noise pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Waste overflow
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Displacement, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusUnknown
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseUnder negotiation
Project temporarily suspended
Development of AlternativesThe main demands of the agitating villagers were

Priority of the employment for the local people instead of the people hired from the different part of the state as well as the country. In this process the employment for the local people whose land has been acquired in the factory is to be given preference.

Pollution from the factory and the captive power plant is causing severe damage to the local agriculture. Compensation is to be given for the damaged crops and extraction of ground water is to be stopped so that the ground water level never goes down.

The daily wages of contractor is to be given as per law

The boundary wall of the factory has restricted the pathway passing through the factory and a village. This pathway is to be opened for the villagers for their free movement [3]
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Jaiprakash (JP) Associates the owner of Chunar Cement Factory had promised to ‘adopt’ five villages surrounding the factory. The company assured the villagers of electricity, schools and health centre and so on. However, the company never fulfilled their promises.

After the protest there were a tripartite talk among the government officials, the factory administrations and the agitators. In the meeting it was decided that a magisterial inquiry will be initiated. After the assurance, the Kisan Sabha has decided to lift the dharna (sit in protest) till the talks. It has been decided that if there is not suitable outcome emerged the movement will be continued [3].
Sources and Materials

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974
[click to view]

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981
[click to view]


[1] JP Associates reopens new-look Chunar cement factory
[click to view]

[2] Protests against JP cement factory spiral, locals clash with cops
[click to view]

[3] Protest against land grab at Chunar
[click to view]

[4] Jaypee Group
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update29/09/2014