The general conflict is about the widespread rapid development of open cast coal mining in the North Karanpura Valley in Hazaribagh and Chatra districts of Jharkhand. This specific case is about the village Kusum Tola (Chatra district) where the coal mine Purnadih threatens the livelihood of about 1000 subsistence indigenous peasants (Adivasis) and their cultural heritage as they have to leave their villages to make way for the coal mine. The coal mine was officially opened on 21 August 2009 and since then, blastings have been heard and felt. The hamlets of Dembua and Baseriya have already been dismantled and the villagers of Kusum Tola are supposed to leave next. There have already been at least 2 demonstrations against the land acquisitions - one in 2009 for stopping mining as it is polluting the water reserves of Kusum Tola and one in 2010 to protest against the blasting. The protests have been organized mainly by a Village Struggle Committee (young activist Suresh Oraon being in the forefront), consisting of more than 25 young villagers. Furthermore, local and international NGOs have engaged in the struggle. It is also noteworthy that the mining area is located in the Red Corridor, a 5 state area where the Indian government has been fighting against the Naxilites (Maoists) in the socalled Operation Green Hunt since 2009. Adivasis and concerned activists are often accused of taking part in the communist insurgency.