Shanghang is a county in Fujian province, bordering Guangdong Province to the southwest. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Longyan. Shanghang County is also the base of Zijin Mining Group . Shanghang Huaqiang Battery Co. Ltd. is one of the largest professional manufacturers of Electrode-Plate and Valve Regulated Sealed Lead-Acid batteries in China. In July 2005, the company moved from its original location in Quanzhou City to Jiaoyang Industrial Park in Shanghang County. 
However, the development of the industrial park did not bring much benefit to the local residents. In such an area with less arable land, landless peasants were promised that at least one person in a household would be employed in the factories after the completion of the construction works, which would improve the livelihoods of all the people there. Later it turned out that factories like Huaqiang Battery preferred to recruit migrant workers from Sichuan, Jiangxi, etc. instead of local villagers, so as to avoid potential local resistances or collective actions. At the same time, local villagers started to smell the unpleasant odor from the Huaqiang battery plant. Gradually, some other strange things happened in the nearby villages (e.g., animals like pigs and geese in some households became sterilized, the osmanthus flowers in the village had not blossomed in those years after the establishment of the factory), which could not be explained by traditional knowledge.  In an open letter issued by villagers of Chongtou, “a large amount of lead dust and lead mud were dumped on the side of the plant without any treatment. When it rains, it directly flows down, causing serious water pollution and soil pollution. Lead dust is everywhere around the plant, and it is scattered everywhere when the wind rises, the physical and mental health of more than 3,000 students and thousands of peasants in the nearby primary and secondary schools have been affected by the disaster-related pollution that threatens the intellectual and fertility of future generations” .
In March 2008, a woman from Chongtou village who woke up in the early morning to do laundry found that white and smelly sewage outlet with foam was discharged from Huaqiang Battery Plant to the stream that villagers were still accessing water from. This was soon spread and several hundreds of villagers from the same village gathered in front of the Huaqiang Battery Plant. They asked the factory to stop the sewage discharge and give a statement. However, in addition to hurriedly shutting down the gate, the factory ignored the protest and the person in charge of the factory disappeared. The angry villagers put some soil and stones to block the road to the factory to stop the pass in and out of the vehicles, and then they sat on the mound and refused to disperse. Later, the villagers clashed with the workers in the factory as well as officials from the Industrial Park, the police intervened and mediated the clash. Huaqiang Battery was fined with CNY 75,000  and quickly built a sedimentation tank, villagers were organized to see the cement pool of about 20 square meters and less than one meter deep, most of them could not believe it would reduce the lead pollution. 
According to a document issued by the Longyan Environmental Protection Bureau on April 15, 2008, “around 8:30 am on March 23, 2008, Huaqiang began to pump the precipitated lime slurry from the wastewater treatment tank into the mud pool. The workers made the pump work for about 1 hour. At 9:30, the tank was found to overflow before the pump was shut down, causing certain pollution to the downstream water body”. After the pollution accident, Huaqiang Battery Co., Ltd. carefully carried out the rectification work according to the rectification opinions of the Shanghang County Environmental Protection Bureau and the guidance of the Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, and basically rectified it at the end of April 2008. 
In August 2008, the Shanghang Huaqiang Battery Co. Ltd held a public hearing for the second phase of its project. When the call for participants was open, many of the villagers wanted to attend, however, right on the day of the meeting, the government temporarily changed the venue without notifying everyone, so that only the party secretary, the village director, and the leaders of the production unit in the village got the news and rushed to the county to attend the hearing. At the end of the hearing, more villagers went to the venue and asked the county to provide the EIA report for the second phase of the Huaqiang Battery. The county could only provide an EIA issued by Shanghang Environmental Protection Bureau, which do not comply with the regulations from the Ministry of Environmental Protection which stated that “heavy pollution chemical projects must be reported to the provincial environmental protection authorities for approval, and environmental protection facilities that have not been accepted or accepted for acceptance are not allowed to be put into operation” . Moreover, villagers also claimed that the direct discharges of sulfuric acid, heavy metals and highly toxic substances into the streams without any treatment seriously polluted water resources and the groundwater; it violated the provisions of Article 30 of the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law.  In addition, the emissions of lead dust from Huaqiang Battery were not treated by the dust-free equipment, which also polluted the air in the area and violated regulations on the protection distance standard of 800 meter from the residential area for the lead-acid battery factories. 
These issues were not properly addressed until the lead poisoning was uncovered because a local villager took his son to the provincial hospital for a test in June 2009 — excessive lead was found in his blood.  More children were tested in August, showing similar results. When the new semester started in September, local people became more concerned and took their children to be tested, also confirming excessive lead in their blood. Then parents began noticing that the test results from the local hospitals were recording lower blood lead levels than the hospitals outside the province. More villagers started to take their children outside the province to get tested, not trusting the local results. Local police began preventing residents from going to other provinces for medical tests. 
As villagers charged that the pollution came from the nearby Huaqiang Battery Factory, the Government of Shanghang County ordered Huaqiang Battery to stop its production immediately from September 10, 2009. However, Huaqiang did not comply, which led to great dissatisfaction among the villagers. Lead poisoning fears kept hundreds of pupils away from primary and middle schools in September. One kindergarten, just 800 meters from the factory, also reported a large number of absences.  This attracted attention from the township and the county level governments, negotiation among the villagers, Huaqiang Battery and the township government was initiated on September 16 but failed to settle the dispute, more and more villagers demanded Huaqiang Battery to relocate. On September 17, 2009, hundreds of parents and some other Shanghang residents protested in front of the Jiaolong Township government offices and blocked a local highway for hours, a market strike echoed the protest.  Officials from Longyan City and Shanghang County governments visited the township to talk with villagers and announced some decisions on the same day: people with excessive blood lead will be treated with support from the government; children who live 600 meters around Huaqiang Battery will be examined for blood lead; production of the Huaqiang Battery Plant will be suspended; representatives will be elected to supervise the implementation of the above measures. People gradually dispersed after the announcement and the power of Huaqiang Battery was forcibly cut off by the government in the late afternoon and the factory was finally shut down. 
In the mediation meeting on September 18, 2009, local residents shouted to the local officials, "You have introduced these dirty factories, are you responsible for our children? You have to pay our green hills and clear waters! You have to return us a healthy environment!" On September 20, people from relevant government departments went from door to door to mobilize students to go back to school. After the 3-day market strike from the 17th, the shops in Jiaoyang Township reopened. However, many students still had not returned to school. According to the information released from local government on 26 September, doctors tested almost 300 children under the age of 14 in Shanghang County, and found 121 of them to show signs of lead poisoning. 
On September 27, 2009, the Fujian Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau made a preliminary determination of the blood lead exceeding the standard of children that “Shanghang Huaqiang Battery Co., Ltd. in Fujian Province should be responsible for more than 100 children with excessive blood lead”.  An investigation team was sent by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in October 2009 to Shanghang to understand deeper about the problems, but no further information has become available afterwards.
In August 2017, local villagers found a large amount of industrial toxic waste piled up in the abandoned former Huaqiang Battery Plant, which polluted the surrounding environment again.