Lombok Airport, Indonesia

Beginning in the mid-1990s peasant farmers were forcibly evicted to make way for Lombok Airport. In 2005 police fired into a crowd of protesters injuring 33 people. The airport commenced operations in 2011 but disputes over plots of land continue.


Description

In the mid-1990s, amid rapid expansion of the tourism industry on the island of Lombok, hundreds of families who had lived in the area for many generations were evicted from 800 hectares of farmland for Lombok Airport, built specifically to provide access to new tourist resorts.[1] Airport construction plans stalled when economic crisis hit Indonesia in the late 1990s, but local municipality oppression of peasants had continued and by 2005 the project was back on the agenda. On 23rd August 2005 2,631 residents of Tanak Awu were forcibly evicted for the airport by local authorities accompanied by police. The evictees had never been consulted about the airport project and were left unable to feed themselves.[2]

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Basic Data
NameLombok Airport, Indonesia
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceWest Nusa Tenggara
SiteTanak Awu
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Ports and airport projects
Specific CommoditiesLand
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsLombok Airport is the main airport on Lombok island. After many years of construction delays it commenced operations in 2011. Lombok Airport is operated by PT Angkasa Pura (state-owned operator of Indonesia’s airports). PT Angkasa Pura allocated US$5 million to expand Lombok Airport premises in October 2016, including construction of two new parking spaces for wide-bodied aircraft such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A330.[7] The runway will be expanded from 2,750 to 3,500 metres to accommodate long-haul flights.[8] Commercial development is planned on land owned by Lombok Airport. In January 2016 the airport’s General Manager had announced that a Motocross (off-road motorcycling) circuit would be built near the airport’s main entrance, covering 5 hectares of the airport’s 511 hectares of land.[9]
Project Area (in hectares)800
Level of Investment (in USD)138,900,000 (Phase 1)
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population7,000 (impact on right to food)
Start Date1994
Company Names or State EnterprisesPT Angkasa Pura from Indonesia
Relevant government actorsNational government of Indonesia

Province of West Nusa Tenggara

Central Lombok Regency
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersIndonesian Federation of Peasant Unions (FSPI)

Serta NTB (West Nusa Tenggara Peasant Union)

FIAN International - https://www.fian.org/

La Via Campesina - https://viacampesina.org/

Land Research Action Network - http://www.landaction.org/

Focus on the Global South - https://focusweb.org/
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationInvolvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Refusal of compensation
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Malnutrition
Potential: Other Health impacts
OtherIn 2005 the airport project threatened the right to food of approximately 7,000 people [2]

33 peasant farmers injured by police - 27 by shooting, 6 by beating [3]

Illnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Migration/displacement
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.In spite of strong opposition Tanak Awu farmers were forcibly evicted for Lombok Airport and police fired gunshot on protesters on 18th September 2005 with 33 people being shot. Disputes over some plots of land acquired for Lombok Airport continue.
Sources and Materials
References

[10] LRAN 2007. Police Open Fire on Peasants in Lombok, Indonesia. Land Research Action Network.
[click to view]

Links

[1] Beaches and broken bones, Inside Indonesia, July-September 1996
[click to view]

[2] Indonesia: Land for peasants or for tourism? The right to food of more than 7000 persons is threatened by the construction of an international airport, Tanak Awu, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, La Via Campesina and FIAN International, 2 November 2005
[click to view]

[3] Police Open Fire on Peasants in Lombok, Indonesia, Land Research Action Network (LRAN), 21 September 2005
[click to view]

[4] Ratusan Warga Tanak Awu Mengamuk Lagi, liputan6.com, 21 June 2006
[click to view]

[5] Persoalan Lahan Bandara Dianggap Beres, Tim Penyelesaian Sengketa Tetap Dibentuk, SUARANTTB.com, 16 November 2016
[click to view]

[6] Perwakilan Masyarakat Lombok Tengah Tuntut Kejelasan Lahan Bandara, lenssautama.com, 27 March 2018
[click to view]

[7] Airport operator allocates Rp78b to expand Lombok airport, Jakarta Post, 12 October 2016
[click to view]

[8] Gov’t Focus on Developing Connectivity Infrastructure in Lombok, Netral English, 11 February 2017
[click to view]

[9] Motocross circuit to be built at Lombok International Airport, Antara News, 23 January 2016
[click to view]

Other Documents

Land disputes continue In March 2018 representatives of communities around Lombok Airport demanded compensation for land. Source: lensautuma.com
[click to view]

Land measurement, June 2006 Farmers reacted with anger to surveyors measuring their land for Lombok Airport
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorRose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update29/08/2018
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