What on the paper appears to be a relatively harmless dam, it revealed to be highly impacting in terms of biodiversity loss. In fact, the Kihansi Gorge is a unique ecosystem home to an enormous variety of plants and animals. Some of them, like the Kihansi spray toad and a species of wild coffee, used to live only in the downstream waterfall spray zone which course has been drastically altered after the dam construction  . Initially funded by a USD$275 million loan to which the International Development Agency of the WB, the European Investment Bank and the development agencies of Norway (NORAD), Sweden (SIDA) and Germany (KfW) contributed , the dam was built by the government of Tanzania in order to meet the growing electricity demands of its mining and tourism industries . The construction works of the Kihansi dam began in 1995 without a proper Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), which did not include an analysis of the downstream impacts neither an environmental flow assessment. No potential ecological impacts were declared. Later on, several ex-post studies have been carried out by academics and development agencies after the discovery of the biodiversity richness of the downstream ecosystems and their endangered species    . They all conclude that the dam is causing significant environmental damage and that is of clearly inadequate significance, as reduced the amount of silt and water coming down from the waterfall into the gorge by 90%. Just a short-term emergency project tried to recreate the spray zone conditions through an artificial sprinkler in order to stabilise the toad population, without being able to restore the original state of the gorge. Nowadays, civil society group locally and internationally (Friends of the Earth and International Rivers, among others) are now working to hold project donors responsible for it. The project did not impact just flora and fauna along the Kihansi river: about 16,000-20,000 people were estimated to live in the project area in 1990. 380 families had to be relocated  . According to KfW agency, “the participation of the population in the project benefits was not achieved to the desired extent due to the accelerated spread of malaria” caused by the construction measures.  Apparently, while initially the remoteness of the highlands villages was protecting the local population from HIV and malaria, the relocation measures and the slowness of health protection measures implementation caused the illnesses to spread. Overall, it is to be considered an unsuccessful project which does not meet several guidelines of the World Commission on Dams , as (i) it did not maintain rivers with high ecosystem values in their natural states, avoiding negative impacts on endangered species; (ii) just a poor and incomplete EIS was carried out ex-ante; (iii) no environmental flow assessment was considered; and (iv) the Government of Tanzania is not forcing TANESCO to comply with existing water rights because of demands for power.