Marange diamond fields were known to the public in 2006, triggering a diamond rush which lasted for 3 to 4 years. At the height of artisanal mining in 2008 an estimated 40 000 artisanal miners and diggers were now living in the diamond fields. However, without warning, government deployed the army into Marange in November 2008 to violently put to an end artisanal mining. What followed was a massacre of local diggers and dealers. The community was not spared either the violence spread to several villages and communities around the diamond fields. Human Rights Watch estimate that about 200 miners were killed, though this figure could be way below the actual, given that some were buried inside the diamond fields, whilst hundreds more died in hospitals and in their homes and were not recorded as having died in Marange. Hundreds of women were raped by the uniformed forces and hundreds more were forced to have unprotected sex with artisanal miners in full view of fellow captives. The method of torture against artisanal miners has continued to this day. Although violence by the army has significantly gone down, private security guards, mainly recruited from ZANU PF structures continue to terrorize miners.