The Sinjajevina-Durmitor massif mountain range is the second largest mountain pasture in Europe, an almost 1.000 km2 limestone plateau between 1,600 and 2,000 m with unique biodiversity built through millennia of pastoral uses and some of the most outstanding alpine landscapes of Europe. The area has been recognized through the creation and the projection of numerous Natural and Cultural protected areas, probably the richest region of its kind in all of Montenegro. An ancient and sustainable way of life in danger Sinjajevina’s rich bio-cultural diversity is not only a product of nature, but it is also the heritage of centuries of local pastoralist communities, a symbiosis of society and environment, and a legacy of sustainable social history. These genuine ecosystems exist because of the thoughtful use and concerted management, generation after generation, by the pastoralist communities. Thus, the ecosystem itself depends on the safe presence and activity of these communities. The highland pastoral settlements or “katuns” dispersed over the territory of Sinjajevina, belong to 8 major tribal groups, each with its own rules of commons’ governance concerning the timing of access to pastures, and the ways of using them to guarantee its durability.