The Pitaguary are an indigenous group that inhabits the highlands of the Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza, the capital city of the Ceará State. Their population is of approximately 4400 people. Their economy depends upon communal agricultural practices, breeding of small animals, fruit recollection and fishing. Since 1997, the Pitaguary initiated a process for land demarcation with Brazil’s National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) and, in 2006, the Justice Ministry declared the Pitaguary Indigenous Territory, comprising 1,735 ha. Since the declaration, the Pitaguary have exerted control over the newly created territory. However, it hasn’t yet been recognized by the Presidency of the Republic. This lack of recognition and its proximity to the urban area of Fortaleza make the Pitaguary susceptible to constant pressure by real estate speculators, among other threats. In 2011, Britaboa Ltda., a local mining company, asked for the renewal of their license to exploit crushed stone in a concession contiguous to the Pitaguary demarcated territory. The mine had been inactive for more than 15 years.