Last update:
2016-03-15

Mokorón Hill, Nicaragua

City dwellers demonstrate against the urbanization of the Mokorón Hill. One of the last tropical dry forest ecosystem in Central America and the most important aquifer recharge for the water supply in Managua.


Description:

The Mokorón hill constitutes the “the last lung” in the city of Managua and its importance stems from its biological diversity, which large quantities of birds species, fauna, flora. Mokorón is also is the refuge of the Guardabarranco (Eumomota superciliosa), which is the national bird of Nicaragua. Furthermore, the Hill is known for its archaeological importance and the memory of the Nicaraguan history; until today there are still remains of young people who died during the Nicaragua’s internal conflict. According to the Centro Humboldt, Mokorón Hill is one of the last tropical dry forest ecosystem in Central America and the most important aquifer recharge for the water supply in Managua.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Mokorón Hill, Nicaragua
Country:Nicaragua
State or province:Managua
Location of conflict:Managua
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Urban development conflicts
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific commodities:Land
Water
Sand, gravel
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Desarrollo habitacional Monte Cielo Hill

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Project area:716,393
Level of Investment:unknown
Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:1,800,000
Start of the conflict:01/04/2003
Company names or state enterprises:Instituto de Previsión Social Militar (IPSM) from Nicaragua - Owner
Sociedad Anónima Negocios Inmobiliarios S.A. (NISA) from Nicaragua - owner
Relevant government actors:Ejercito Nacional, Gobierno de Nicaragua, Alcaldía de Managua, Asamblea Nacional, Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARENA)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Comité pro Defensa Cerro Mokorón, Movimiento Comunal Nicaragüense (MCN), Centro Humboldt, Juventud Comunal Nicaraguense (JCN), Asociación Martin Luther King (AMLK), Comunidades Eclesiales de Base, Movimiento Comunal Miguel Bonilla, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, Managua (UNAN-Managua)
Conflict and Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Religious groups
young groups
Forms of mobilization:Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
On 11 November defenders formed a human chain of 2,000 people demanding that the National Assembly approve the bill to declare Mokoron a national park.
Impacts of the project
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation
Potential: Air pollution, Desertification/Drought, Global warming, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsPotential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Other socio-economic impactsEl aumento de los deslaves y erosión del suelo por la deforestación amenaza a las comunidades que viven en sus faldas
Outcome
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (undecided)
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Draft law to declare the Mokoron Hill as a National Park or Natural Reserve
Development of alternatives:The presentation of a draft law to declare the Mokoron Hill as a National Park or Natural Reserve. Proposals to develop the zone with a sustainable tourism and other activities related with protected areas such as trails for trekking, camping areas, reforestation projects, tree nurseries, and educational facilities.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:The damage to the Mokoron Hill continues, the effort to declare the Hill as a National Park did not succeed but the declaration as a natural reserve is undecided.
Sources and Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Ley General de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
[click to view]

Constitución Política de Nicaragua. Artículos 59 y 60 establece que los Nicaragüenses tenemos derecho a la salud y que el Estado establecerá las condiciones básicas para su promoción y protección, igual que el derecho de habitar en un ambiente saludable, siendo obligación del Estado la preservación, la conservación y el rescate del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales
[click to view]

Ley No. 626, “Ley que crea la comisión de desarrollo sostenible de la cuenca hídrica de los lagos Apanás, Xolotlán y Cocibolca, y del río San Juan". Protege la Cuenca sur de Managua, y en este caso por medio de la Protección del cerro Mokorón, ubicado en la micro-cuenca “D” de la Cuenca sur del Lago Xolotlán
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Centro Humbolt (2010) Reporte de Monitoreo a Zona de Amortiguamiento y Zona Núcleo del Cerro Mokorón
[click to view]

Centro Humbolt (2009) Propuesta de lineamientos estratégicos para el plan de manejo del Parque Nacional Cerro Mokoron

Arnoldo Paniagua E. (2008) Documento técnico para la declaración del Cerro Mokorón como Área Protegida
[click to view]

ALOP (2013). Las organizaciones y movilizaciones sociales por la defensa de los recursos y bienes naturales: Un desafío para la democracia y el Desarrollo en América Latina, IDD capítulo Nicaragua.
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Amalia del Cid (2010) Reportaje Mokorón, el pulmón herido
[click to view]

Campaña virtual por el Mokorón
[click to view]

Madrono, Nicolas. La voz del sandinismo (2013) "Promueven proyecto de ley para declarar al Mokorón reserva natural".
[click to view]

MOKORON Área Protegida Nacional, Parque Nacional (2014) Pronunciamiento juvenil sobre el Cerro Mokorón
[click to view]

El Nuevo Diario, (julio 2008), Cancelarán permiso de urbanizar en Mokorón
[click to view]

Hoy, (octubre 2013), Por el Mokorón
[click to view]

El Nuevo Diario, (julio 2008), "Negocios con Mokorón son todos ilegales"
[click to view]

Trinchera de la Noticia, (2012), ¿Realizarán esta vez algo en defensa del Mokorón?
[click to view]

Movimiento Comunal Nicaraguense, (2014), MOKORON Area Protegida Nacional, Parque Nacional
[click to view]

Movimiento Comunal Nicaragüense "Lucha permanente por la Defensa y Protección del Cerro Mokorón"
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Masacre ambiental en Cerro Mokorón, Televicentro
[click to view]

Other documents

Manifestacion frente al Parlamento Nacional en el 2009 Pobladores de la colonia “Miguel Bonilla”, estudiantes de la UNAN y oficiales del Centro Humboldt se plantaron frente al Parlamento demandando que se declare el cerro Mokorón Parque Nacional. Manuel Zapata para El Nuevo Diario, Nicaragua.
[click to view]

Campaña de Parque Nacional
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Grettel Navas, Fundación Neotrópica
Last update15/03/2016
Comments
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