New Pokhara International Airport, Nepal

In 1975 1,500 households were displaced for a new airport in Pokhara. The project lay dormant until it was revived in 2013. Additional land acquisition met with many protests and a violent clash that led to at least six people suffering injuries


Description

In 1975 the Nepal government acquired 93,106 ropani (158 hectares) of land from 1,500 households for construction of a new airport in Pokhara.[1] The main objective of the new airport is to provide easier access for visitors and develop the area as a tourism hub. The land acquired for the airport was agricultural and the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) recognized that the loss of farmland could cause affected people difficulties in maintaining their subsistence livelihoods, assuring that the airport project would open up opportunities for alternative livelihoods in trade and tourism.[2]

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Basic Data
NameNew Pokhara International Airport, Nepal
CountryNepal
ProvinceGandaki Pradesh province
SitePokhara
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Ports and airport projects
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Specific CommoditiesLand
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe New Pokhara International Airport site is at Chinnedanda, just 3 kilometres distance from Pokhara Airport, the existing airport serving the region. A USD216 million loan for construction of New Pokhara International Airport, part funding the project, was finalized by China Export Import Bank on 11th July 2017. China CMAC Engineering Co (CMAC) was awarded the contract to construct and develop the airport, commencing construction in August 2016. CMAC’s bid for the project, the lowest at USD305 million, was nevertheless significantly higher than the USD175 million budget originally set for the project.[17]

New Pokhara International Airport is scheduled for completion in 2021 with capacity to handle 1 million passengers annually. The airport will feature a 2,500 meter length 45 meter wide runway to support take-off and landing operations of large commercial aircraft such as Airbus A320, Boeing 737-700 series and Boeing 757-200, taxiways and access roads. Landside infrastructure will include a 10,000 square meter international terminal and a 4,000 square meter domestic terminal.[18]
Project Area (in hectares)200
Level of Investment (in USD)305,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population1,830 households / landowners
Start Date19/03/2013
Company Names or State EnterprisesNepali Oil Corporation (NOC) from Nepal - Demanded additional land allocation for airport site, for fuel storage
China CAMC Engineering (CAMC) from China - Awarded contract for construction of New Pokhara International Airport
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Nepal

Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN)

Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation (MoCTCA)

Pokhara-Leknath Metropolitan Municipality

Kaski District
International and Financial InstitutionsChina Export Import Bank from China - Approved a USD 216 million soft loan agreeemnt for project development in March 2016
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersInternational Airport Construction Public Concern Struggle Committee
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of a network/collective action
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Refusal of compensation
Affected landowners attempted to padlock project office [5]
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Noise pollution, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Oil spills, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Health ImpactsVisible: Other Health impacts
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
OtherIllnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft

At least 6 people injured in clash between landowners and police [5],[6],[7]
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Increase in violence and crime
Potential: Violations of human rights, Other socio-economic impacts
OtherProbable displacement of paragliding businesses to make way for airport flightpaths [11],[12]
Outcome
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Migration/displacement
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Phased land acquisition and a land survey for New Pokhara International Airport proceeded without consulting affected residents and many affected people rejected compensation that was offered. Residents facing displacement resorted to repeated protests, warnings that they would obstruct construction and an attempt to padlock the project office.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

[2] Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of New Pokhara Regional International Airport, Submitted to: Government of Nepal Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Submitted by: Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN), January 2015
[click to view]

Links

[4] Local protest govt move of acquiring additional land, Himalayan Times, 19 March 2013
[click to view]

[8] Airport project offers substitute land, Kathmandu Post, 29 December 2014
[click to view]

[10] Dispute over land price ends, Ekantipur, 15 February 2015
[click to view]

[1] Locals refuse land for hub airport in Pokhara, Ghale Treks, 19 March 2013
[click to view]

[3] With new airport, Pokhara waits for takeoff, Nepali Times, 12 January 2018
[click to view]

[5] 10 hurt in Pokhara airport construction dispute, Kathmandu Post, 18 December 2014
[click to view]

[6] Six people injured in clashes over land compensation, Kathmandu Post, 19 December 2014
[click to view]

[18] Pokhara Regional International Airport (PRIA), Airport Technology
[click to view]

[7] 8 injured as agitated land owners clash with Police, Myrepublica.com, 19 December 2014
[click to view]

[9] DDC tells landowners to stop upping ante, Himalayan Times, 8 January 2015
[click to view]

[11] Paragliders fear being displaced by airport, Kathmandu Post, 21 June 2016
[click to view]

[12] Pokhara’s 4-decade-old dream within grasp, Kathmandu Post, 3 August 2018
[click to view]

[13] Construction work of Pokhara Airport intensified after PM’s Visit, tourismmail.com, 1 August 2018
[click to view]

[14] Additional land acquisition proposed for Pokhara Regional International Airport, aviationnepal.com, 10 August 2018
[click to view]

[15] Locals protest against additional land acquisition at Pokhara International Airport, aviationnepal.com, 15 August 2018
[click to view]

[16] Pokhara airport’s foundation laying slated for April 14, Kathmandu Post, 1 April 2016
[click to view]

[17] New Pokhara International Airport, Centre for Aviation (CAPA)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Site of new airport fenced off in 2016 Construction of Pokhara International Airport began in June 2016. Source: Ekantipur
[click to view]

Boundary of Pokhara International Airport Source: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of New Pokhara Regional International Airport, Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN), 2015
[click to view]

Construction stalled in 2017 Construction of Pokhara International Airport stalled in 2017. Source: Kathmandu Post
[click to view]

The new airport may displace paragliding activities Pokhara is a popular paragliding destination, but may be affected by airspace regulations. Source: Kathmandu Post
[click to view]

Site of Pokhara International Airport, 2014 In December 2014 landowners protested over the low compensation rate offered by the government. Source: myrepublica.com
[click to view]

Pokhara International Airport construction Construction of Pokhara International Airport underway in February 2018. Source: Kathmandu Post
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorRose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update03/10/2018
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