Tesso Nilo is one of the last places of Sumatran where tigers and elephants live. In this protected park there are about 4,000 plant species recorded so far. It has one of the highest levels of lowland forest plant biodiversity known to science and is also one of the largest remaining forests on the island of Sumatra. It is also an important water reserve for more than 40,000 people living in the 22 surrounding villages. The national park was established in 2004 over almost 40.000 hectares. The boundaries were expanded to 100.000 hectares in 2009 by decision of the Indonesian minister of forestry and the governor of Riau and the collaboration of WWF “to ensure adequate habitat for elephants in central Sumatra”. This conservation project was expanded to relocate dozens of elephants from Minas in Siak district to Tesso Nilo. The relocation was justified by the loss of habitat in Minas due to oil palm plantations . The Belgian government provided 200,000 euros for the construction of a Sumatran elephant conservation center in the National Park. Although the timber extraction and clearing of forest for agriculture are not allowed in the national park, the forest has been lost in recent years showing a lack of law enforcement. Much of forests have been cleared to develop palm oil plantations and meet worldwide demand for pulp and paper. WWF reported in 2010 that two of the world’s largest palm oil companies—Asian Agri and Wilmar—purchased palm oil fruit that was illegally grown within the boundaries of the Tesso Nilo Forest [1,3,4]. Indonesia’s Forestry Minister admitted in 2014 that 50%, or two million hectares, of all oil palm plantation in Riau is “illegal or has no permit”.