Currently a number of oil explorations are taking place in the Peruvian Amazon regions of Ucayali and Madre de Dios. One of these explorations was launched in 2005 by Petrobras Energía del Peru S.A. in an area that overlaps with almost the entire reserve of the Murunahua (also known as Chitonahua) indigenous group. Although the exploration project was abolished after protests, threats to communities living to a large extent in isolation remain, especially through conflicts with illegal loggers in their territories.
A particular threat in the Purus region concerns isolated indigenous populations - groups which have never had contact with people outside the forest or wish to live in voluntary isolation, consciously avoiding contact with the outside world. About 15 such isolated indigenous populations (approximately 15,000 people) are estimated to live in the Peruvian Amazon and even more in Brazil, usually living together in bigger families as nomads in the forest. These groups are highly vulnerable because they usually lack of immunological defenses to common “Western” diseases and also face other continuous existential pressures, e.g. through the destruction of their livelihoods, invading loggers and drug-traffickers – a currently increasing problem in the Brazil-Peru border region, which forced some groups to flee from Peruvian Ucayali to the Brazilian Envira region – and, often as a result of that, caused conflicts with other indigenous groups or suffered from immunological diseases. The Murunahuas, which were most directly affected by the Lot 110 explorations, were also confronted with invasions from illegal loggers in the 1990s, leading to the extinction of half of their population, mostly due to introduced illnesses; similar incidents occurred also when Shell contacted isolated Nahua tribes in the 1980s. Until the early 2000s, the presence of isolated indigenous communities in the region remained largely ignored by Peruvian authorities and in 2007 Perúpetro even denied their existence, whereas more recently Peruvian government officials were publicly considering resettlements.  
In 2005, Petrobras Energía del Peru S.A. acquired a concession to explore oil in ‘Lot 110’ in the Peruvian Alto Juruá for the following 40 years, making use of a legal loophole to access the partly protected area of about 1,4 million hectares. The project was situated in the upper Juruá region, one of the Amazon’s richest areas in oil and natural gas that is also explored by the Brazilian Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP) across the border in the State of Acre, and home to a number of indigenous communities.   It extended over binational waters on the Brazilian border and was superimposed to the almost entire Murunahua indigenous reserve and further territories of the Ashaninka, Jaminawa and Amahuaca communities; it moreover bordered the Purus National Park, one of the Amazon’s most isolated regions and home to the Mashco-Piro population, which has been most known for having become displaced from logging.  Also a concession for the nearby ‘Lot 132’ was offered by Perupetro and overlapped with the Murunahua territory. At the same time, Petrobras also engaged in ‘Lot 117’ in the North of Peru, which is a similarly controversial case as communities of Napo Tigre there had before spoken out against oil exploitation and been fighting for a recognized territory. The projects then entered the exploration phase but it seems that not operations had started right then. In early 2009, the Colombian petrol company Ecopetrol announced to enter the agreement, taking over 50 percent of the shares of the concession in Lot 110 and 25 percent in Lot 117. 
The leasing out of oil and gas exploration lots in indigenous territories in the Amazon through Perupetro, Peru’s state-owned petrol company, caused widespread criticism and controversy from civil-society and indigenous organizations. One of the first indigenous federations to mobilize was the Association Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana (AIDESEP) which in 2007 confronted an announcement of Perupetro to open concessions for oil and gas explorations in 18 new lots, most of them in the Amazon. AIDESEP outlined some of the most critical ones, including Petrobras' engagement in Lot 110, and also intervened in some with legal measures together with other organizations.  Indigenous mobilization in the Lot 110 case came especially from the Apiwtxa Association of the Ashaninka community of the Kampa do Rio Amônia territory in Brazil, located just downstream the border. Apiwtxa emerged throughout the Ashaninka’s longstanding struggle for indigenous rights and self-determination in the region and frequently engages with civil society and public institutions on behalf of local indigenous groups. They showed solidarity with the affected community and publicly denounced Petrobras and the Peruvian State for advancing plans to conduct oil and gas prospecting activities in the Murunahua Reserve. In an open letter, Apiwtxa demanded Petrobras to fulfill its legal socio-ecological responsibilities and to stop its operations in the whole upper Juruá, Amônia and Tamaya area. In particular, they raised concerns about the feared adverse effects on the local watershed through oil and gas explorations and also pointed to the issues of illegal logging in indigenous lands, calling on the Peruvian government to take action. They also objected the increasing attempts of the oil lobby to advertise oil and gas projects throughout the region and co-opt indigenous communities in the upper Juruá area as for example Petrobras invited them to workshops to prepare them for the “challenges of sustainable development” and hydrocarbon activities in order to achieve “harmonious relations between the state, oil companies and communities”. 
Survival International amplified the protest and started a public campaign against Petrobras and Ecopetrol attempts to start the exploration project and alleged the Peruvian government to permit the advancing of petrol companies into indigenous territories and to violate international conventions on the rights of indigenous people to recognize and protect indigenous livelihoods and voluntary isolation. They made a public alert and initiated a petition concerning the Muranahua Reserve and appealed on the Peruvian Ministry for Energy and Mining to reconsider the concession, given the socio-ecological threats of oil exploration in the area and the clear violation of the rights of the isolated communities in the Murunahua Reserve, and pointing to the forced encounters in the 1990s which have caused the death of half of the Murunahua population. They warned that history could repeat with the planned operations.  Also other NGOs and organizations intended to raise public attention for the case, including Upper Amazon Conservancy, ORPIO, ProPurús, Grupo de Trabalho para a Proteção Transfronteiriça, Oilwatch Sudamerica, World Rainforest Movement, the Peruvian Association for Nature Conservation, Articulación por un Movimiento de Afectados por la Industria Petrolera en Países Amazónicos and the Comissão Pró-Índio do Acre.
In 2010, Perupetro announced to abandon oil exploration in Lot 110 and to make the areas off-limit, while opening an additional 25 lots for oil and gas exploration in the Peruvian Amazon over 10 million hectares; this means that in 2010 already 75 percent of it was opened to oil and gas exploration or drilling and 52 oil and gas concessions were active. Regarding the Murunahua Reserve, NGOs reacted with relief but warned against an ecological disaster in other affected areas. While there was few further official information about the closure of Lot 110 besides that it disappeared from Petrobras’ concession map and that also the border of Lot 132 has been redrawn, some media reported that it resulted from international pressure on the Peruvian government. 
In 2011, suddenly new plans of the Peruvian government to completely abolish the Murunahua Reserve were exposed. The government argued that it had done everything to protect the isolated groups but its Indian Affairs Department (INDEPA) did not believe that they were still living there. NGOs like Survival International called this a cynical maneuver as in all the previous years, no measures against illegal logging, an ever-increasing problem in the region, were undertaken by the government, knowing that that way isolated groups would die or migrate. The former chief of INDEPA joined the critique, called the plans completely absurd and assumed that it could only be down to the interests of illegal logging and oil. In fact, the NGO Upper Amazon Conservancy (UAC) had been documenting the situation of isolated communities in region for a decade, including investigation of the Murunahua Reserve and the Alto Purús National Park in 2010 and published aerial pictures showing nomadic isolated groups as well as tractors and a total of five illegal logging camps within the Murunahua territory, indicating the imminent threat to the communities. Survival International and the Upper Amazon Conservancy campaigned about the conflict using this evidence and the photos made it to the world media, however with some reports being rather sensationalist about the ‘discovery’. Shortly after, several villages at the Brazilian border (e.g. in the Envira and Kampa do Rio Amônia territories) came into conflict (including two deaths) or simply made encounters with displaced isolated groups from the same area, including Mashco-Piro people from the Alto Purús National Park that reported about murderous attacks from loggers and/or drug traffickers and asked for help; some of them then decided to stay closer to the village for the moment, some of them suffered from immunological attacks, and some of them turned back. As a consequence, Peru’s government made a statement that the Murunahua Reserve will not be closed and that it will do more to protect isolated people. Thus, in the last years it seems to have at least acknowledged the presence of indigenous communities but local authorities lack funding to protect isolated communities, while illegal logging and oil and gas explorations are still pushing forward in nearby remote areas and also drug trafficking has expanded dramatically.