On August 1, 2012, a massive mining spill causing the release of 20.6 million tons of toxic tailings into water bodies, occurred at the Philex Padcal mine, located in Benguet province. In terms of volume, the spill was ten times larger than the unprecedented 1996 Marcopper mine disaster. While the Padcal spill contained less toxic material per ton of tailings, the much larger volume heavily contaminated the region . The Padcal mine is further located on ancestral lands of the Igorot tribes. While Philex profited billions from the mine, the company left behind vast destruction of livelihoods, indigenous cultures and ways of life . It was not the first time that incidents were recorded for the Padcal mine: also in the 1980s and 1990s, two tailings storage ponds collapsed, and another small spill occurred in one of the ponds few years before the 2012 disaster .