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Opposition to reclamation projects in the city of Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia

The reclamation activities in 2015-17 for the Centre Point of Indonesia project and the Makassar new port development, encountered fierce resistance from fisher people because of destruction of ecosystems and livelihoods


The South Sulawesi government first proposed the Centre Point of Indonesia (CPI) project in 2009 (1). Then, in 2013, the government offered private sector companies ownership stakes in the development in exchange for assistance with construction and financing. PT Yasmin Bumi Asri won the tender under an agreement that 106.76 hectares, about 68 percent of the area, will be owned by the Makassar-based developer for commercial use, while the rest would be used by the South Sulawesi government for the state guesthouse complex. In May 2015, PT Yasmin Bumi Asri established a joint operation with PT Ciputra Surya, subsidiary of the Ciputra Group conglomerate, to help develop the five islands. Ciputra estimated that the first stage of the project would cost around 2.5 trillion Indonesian rupiah (about $187.66 million). The joint operation then  employed Boskalis to oversee the construction of the islands The first phase of the Makassar New Port (MNP) was built in 2017 and has been officially operational on March 28, 2019. The 22-hectare sea has been stockpiled and is soon to complete the construction of the second and third stages. In the next 2032 this project will totally reclaim 106 hectares of the sea (2). Currently, the overall reclaimed area if the CPI and MNP are combined is 263 hectares. However, according to the RZWP3K Regional Regulation it will eventually reach 3,711.55 hectares. CPI is foreseen to be extended and changed into a Zone of Service and Trade Zone, covering an area of ​​2,706 hectares. While MNP will be included in the Provincial Strategic Area which reaches an area of ​​1,154.81 hectares and the Untia bridge, a new reclamation project covering an area of ​​1,552.82 hectares.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Opposition to reclamation projects in the city of Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia
State or province:Sulawesi
Location of conflict:Makassar
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Urban development conflicts
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Ports and airport projects
Specific commodities:Land
Sand, gravel
Project Details and Actors
Project details

CPI has needed 2,262 hectares of sand and landfill. "The South Sulawesi government planned a massive land-reclamation project, known as Centre Point Indonesia, that will create five artificial islands off the coast of the provincial capital, Makassar. The project is estimated to require around 22 million cubic meters of sand and gravel, which will be mined on- and offshore in nearby districts. Local fishing communities have rejected — and attempted to physically prevent — sand mining, which they fear will destroy their livelihoods. The project also faces a lawsuit alleging work commenced without required documentation — including a permit from the fisheries ministry and a valid Environmental Impact Assessment.Meanwhile, proponents of the project see it as a push for regional infrastructure development in South Sulawesi, which posted 7.41 percent economic growth in 2016 compared to the country’s 5.02 percent. South Sulawesi Governor Syahrul Yasin Limpo has said the project, which is in the shape of a garuda — the Hindu mythical bird that is the country’s national symbol — will become a new “prestigious landmark” for Indonesia and increase Makassar’s public space by 80 percent". (1)

Project area:263 hectares
Level of Investment:89,456,400 USD
Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:1,105 heads of fisherfolk families
Start of the conflict:2015
Company names or state enterprises:Boskalis International from Netherlands
PT Ciputra Surya from Indonesia - Developer
PT Yasmin Bumi Asri from Indonesia - Winner of the tender of the CPI
Relevant government actors:South Sulawesi government
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Indonesian Forum for the Environment (Walhi)
Makassar Sea Rescue Alliance (ASP)
Conflict and Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Bugis people
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Impacts of the project
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsDeaths of people for eating polluted shellfish
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Both projects have been built and so far the court decisions have failed Ej organizations
Sources and Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Zoning Plan for Coastal Areas and Small Islands (RZWP3K)

Law No.7 / 1984 concerning the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Presidential Instruction No. 9/2000 on Gender Mainstreaming in Development

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[5] Kontroversi di Balik Reklamasi Pantai Makassar, Antara Kepentingan Rakyat dan Pengembang. Mongabay Indonesia. July 13, 2017 (accessed on 05.08.2019)
[click to view]

[2] Tak Ada Lagi Kerang di Pesisir Makassar. June 19, 2019. Mongabay Indonesia (accessed on 05.08.2019)
[click to view]

[3] Perempuan Paling Terdampak Proyek Pembangunan Pesisir Makassar. November 15, 2018. Mongabay Indonesia (accessed on 05.08.2019)
[click to view]

[4] Mereka yang Terimbas Reklamasi di Pesisir Makassar. July 6, 2015. Mongabay Indonesia (accessed on 05.08.2019)
[click to view]

[1] Sand mining, land reclamation meet fierce resistance in Makassar. July 10, 2017. Mongabay (accessed on 05.08.2019). By Rahmat Hardiansya, Wahyu Chandra
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Artificial island creation, Makassar - Indonesia
[click to view]

Other documents

Center Point of Indonesia development Center Point of Indonesia development (Picture: Wahyu Chandra/Mongabay Indonesia)
[click to view]

Sand dunes CPI development with sand mined from the Takalar area
[click to view]

Activists Activists opposing land reclamation in Makassar
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Envjustice (IIA) ICTA-UAB
Last update14/08/2019
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