For years, farmers in Thailand have been resisting pressure from the United States and Europe to adopt strong intellectual property laws on seeds. In the wake of Thailand joining the WTO, the country passed a PVP Act in 1999. The Act was a partial solution to avoid succumbing to stricter laws, such as UPOV, which would severely threaten Thailand’s 25 million peasant farmers. Although less restrictive than UPOV, the 1999 law already places some restrictions on what farmers can do with varieties protected by a PVP certificate. Farmers are allowed to re-use protected seeds, but there are many requirements: they must have purchased the original seeds themselves; they can only re-sow them on their own farm, meaning the seeds cannot be shared or exchanged; and in some cases there are also quantity restrictions.