Rukuda irrigation dam, Orissa, India


The Rukuda irrigation dam project is located in Bonai sub-division of Sundargarh District in Orissa. The project was originally conceived in 1972. The main aim of the project was to provide water to 74 villages of Bonai and Gurundia blocks. The construction work has stopped following protests from locals due to allegedly unfair compensation measures. After several rounds of negotiations with the protestors and assurance of appropriate rehabilitation, the project work actually started in 2007 with a revised cost of Rs 200 crore.

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Basic Data
NameRukuda irrigation dam, Orissa, India
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Water Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Dams and water distribution conflicts
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific CommoditiesWater
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe project was originally conceived in 1972 with an aim to provide water to 74 villages of Bonai and Gurundia blocks. It was estimated at INR 26 crore. The project work actually started in 2007. The estimated revised cost of the project was Rs 200 crore [1, 2]
Level of Investment (in USD)37,233,600 (INR 26 crore)
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population4000
Start Date2007
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersSundargarh Adivasi Mahasabha, village assembly Sundargarh Zilla PESA Gramsabha Samannwita Samiti
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Land occupation
Street protest/marches
Threats to use arms
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Local police has registered three cases and arrested four persons in connection with the incidents.

Construction works are ongoing and the plant is scheduled to be completed by 2015-2016.
Sources and Materials

The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
[click to view]

Tribal Atrocities Protection Act, 1984
[click to view]


[3] 38 villagers protesting dam construction arrested
[click to view]

[2] Times of India, "Local protest stalls Rukuda dam work"
[click to view]

[1] Tribals Protest against S’garh Dam Work, Demand Compensation
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update03/05/2014