Sappi Saiccor pulp mill pollution, South Africa


The Sappi Saiccor mill is situated next to the Mkhomazi River a short distance upstream from the coastal town of Umkomaas in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

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Basic Data
NameSappi Saiccor pulp mill pollution, South Africa
CountrySouth Africa
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Waste Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Chemical industries
Specific CommoditiesWater

Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Sappi Saiccor mill has the capacity to produce 800 000 tonnes of chemical cellulose per annum.
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Populationmore
Start Date1960
Company Names or State EnterprisesSappi Saiccor from South Africa - Also known as Sappi Chemical Cellulose (South Africa, Hong Kong)
Relevant government actorsDepartment of Trade and Industry, Department of Water, Department of Environment, Industrial Development Corporation
International and Financial InstitutionsForest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersgroundWork, Friends of the Earth, South Durban Community Environment Alliance (SDCEA), Timberwatch Coalition, Newhaven Ratepayers and Anti-pollution Watchdog Committee
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginUNKNOWN
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationCreation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Community meetings to raise concerns. Petitions, newspaper reports. Letters of complaint.
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Fires, Oil spills
OtherThe Sappi Saiccor mill affects fish in the Mkhomazi river and marine life in the Indian Ocean where much of the mill effluent is dumped via a 6,5 km long pipeline.
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Potential: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases
OtherThe waste substances from the mill are disposed of in an irresponsible manner which resulits in air and water contamination through dust and leachate, that affect human health.
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Violations of human rights
OtherThe overbearing presence of the mill and its polluting activities has created negative perceptions of the area and has certainly discouraged investment in local towns and villages affected by this.
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseEnvironmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Negotiated alternative solution
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
The Sappi Saiccor mill could be decommissioned and replaced by an ecotourism industry.
Development of AlternativesMost local people wish that the existing legislation could be properly enforced, and that the mill would then stop polluting the area.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Despite the bad publicity caused by the pollution and incidents of poisoning from accidents at the mill, Sappi Saiccor continues to pollute with impunity. Local peoples anger and unhappiness with the situation has been effectively neutralised by appeasement strategies used by the pulp mill to reduce opposition within the community. Small donations made by the company to local schools and community organisations have seemingly bought their silence.
Sources and Materials

Water Act

Air Quality Act

Waste Management Act

National Environmental Management Act.


South Africa: Sappi Saiccor to expand its polluting pulp mill?
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Other CommentsThe closure of the Sappi Saiccor mill would represent an opportunity to re-invent the local economy of the area, creating many more jobs and restoring the health of the environment.
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ContributorWally Menne
Last update20/05/2019