Last update:
2019-03-24

Sariska Tiger Reserver and contentious relocation plan, Rajasthan, India

The pastoralist communities of Sariska are struggling against the 'voluntary relocation plan' launched by the government to save the tiger. The communities are asking for the recognition of the Forest Rights Act and better compensation measures.


Description:

In 2005 the Sariska Tiger Reserve was declared having 'No tigers' which was gruesome news of the failure of project tiger after the expenditure of a huge exchequer throughout 50 years of conservation efforts; the authorities put the blame on the traditional forest-dwelling communities, framing them as helpers and associates of poachers. 

See more
Basic Data
Name of conflict: Sariska Tiger Reserver and contentious relocation plan, Rajasthan, India
Country:India
State or province:Rajasthan
Location of conflict:Alwar
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biodiversity conservation conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific commodities:Land
Biological resources
Ecosystem Services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The Sariska Tiger Reserve is situated in the Alwar district of Rajasthan state in India. After independence the 456 sq. Km. forest area of Sariska was declared as a wildlife Reserve on 7th November 1955 under the Rajasthan Wild Animals and Birds Protection Act, 1951. At that time no human settlement was displaced from the area. Later on the status of the area upgraded to Wildlife Sanctuary Km on18 September, 1958 under the section 5 of the Wild Animals and Birds Protection act, 1951. The status of WLS was again ratified under section 66(4) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. In 1978 the Sariska forest was notified as India’s 11th Tiger reserve encompassing the area of 866 sq. km under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Thereafter on 27th August 1982 400.14 sq. Km area of the reserve was notified as National Park under section 35 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

See more
Project area:121,300
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:3,000
Start of the conflict:01/01/2008
Relevant government actors:National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
Rajasthan Forest Department
International and Finance InstitutionsWorld Wildlife Fund (WWF) from Switzerland
The World Bank from United Kingdom
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:KRAPAVIS (Krishi Avam Paristhitiki Vikas Sansthan)
Conflict and Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Landless peasants
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Pastoralists
Social movements
Gujjars, Meenas traditional groups
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Refusal of compensation
Impacts of the project
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Potential: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Food insecurity (crop damage)
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in violence and crime, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Other socio-economic impacts
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Criminalization of activists
Land demarcation
Migration/displacement
Strengthening of participation
Development of alternatives:The locals are asking for the recognition of the Forest Rights Act (FRA), and the recognition of co-existence within the Forest Reserved area instead of a relocation package as measure to protect the environment.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The people continue to feel the pressure of relocation. Their demands for better compensation have not been heard yet, and protest continue to arise fro the Tiger Reserve.
Sources and Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Wildlife Protection Act (WLPA), Amendment 2006
[click to view]

The Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of forest rights) Act, 2006
[click to view]

NTCA Guidelines for Relocation from Critical Tiger Habitat
[click to view]

The Indian Forest Act, 1927
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[1] Viren Lobo (2016) 'Deliberate Deprivation of Forest Resource Rights and Forced Eviction of Indigenous Communities Violation of FRA, 2006 in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Alwar, Rajasthan', a Report by Institute for Ecology and Livelihood Action and Krishi Avam Paristhitiki Vikas Sansthan(KRAPAVIS)
[click to view]

[5] NEGOTIATING FOREST RIGHTS, DUTIES AND RELOCATION IN THE SARISKA TIGER RESERVE, A report by Arpita Kodiveri
[click to view]

[6] Purva Jain, Haroon Sajjad, 'Household dependency on forest resources in the Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR), India: Implications for management', Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 30 Nov. 2015
[click to view]

[9] Ghazala Shahabuddin et al., 2007. Creation of Inviolate Space: lives, livelihood and conflict in Sariska Tiger Reserve. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, No. 20 (May 19-25, 2007), pp. 1855-1862
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[9] Times of India 'Rajasthan government mulls to hike compensation for shifting villages from tiger reserve' Author: Joychen Joseph, April 15, 2018
[click to view]

[3] ZeeNews, 'Sariska villages protest relocation', May 16, 2012
[click to view]

[8] Times of India, 'No progress in relocation of villages in core, buffer areas of Sariska Tiger Reserve', Author: Rajendra Sharma, May 21, 2018
[click to view]

[7] Times of India 'Villagers intensify stir, stop tourists from entering Sariska Tiger Reserve', May 24. 2018
[click to view]

[4] Times of India, 'Sariska villages block tourist entry ', Author: Rajendra Sharma, March 1, 2013
[click to view]

[2] BBC (2012) 'India village in Rajasthan to relocate to protect tiger'.
[click to view]

Other documents

Letter from Sariska forest dwellers to MoEF Letter to Jual Oram Tribal Minister on violations of the provisions of FRA in relation to forest dwellers of Sariska (10/05/2017).
[click to view]

Pastoralist communities of Sariska
[click to view]

Village Umari in Sariska This village has now been relocated
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Eleonora Fanari, ICTA (UAB)
Last update24/03/2019
Comments
Legal notice / Aviso legal
We use cookies for statistical purposes and to improve our services. By clicking "Accept cookies" you consent to place cookies when visiting the website. For more information, and to find out how to change the configuration of cookies, please read our cookie policy. Utilizamos cookies para realizar el análisis de la navegación de los usuarios y mejorar nuestros servicios. Al pulsar "Accept cookies" consiente dichas cookies. Puede obtener más información, o bien conocer cómo cambiar la configuración, pulsando en más información.