Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project, India


The Sasan project is one of nine Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) plants being pursued by the Indian government. Sasan UMPP is a pit-head coal-based thermal power plant [1] The Sasan Power Project is owned by Sasan Power Limited, which is a subsidiary of Reliance Industries. Production capacity of the plant will be 3,960 MW (6x660 MW) and there will be an associated captive coal mine [2]. Reliance Power Ltd is executing 3960 MW Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) through its wholly owned subsidiary Sasan Power Ltd. Sasan UMPP has been allotted 3 captive coal mines - namely Moher, Moher - Amlohri extension and Chhattrasal. These are the largest mines in the country in terms of volume handled.

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Basic Data
NameSasan Ultra Mega Power Project, India
ProvinceMadhya Pradesh
SiteVillage - Shasan; District-Singrauli
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Thermal power plants
Coal extraction and processing
Specific CommoditiesElectricity

Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe plant will generate 3,960 MW (UMPP) - 6x660 MW and coal will be supplied from an associated captive coal mine. The Annual Emissions will about 26-27 million tons of carbon dioxide per year for both the mine and local refinery. The plant will emit 832 grams carbon dioxide per kilowatt hour. The power will be used by Madhya Pradesh (Lead Procurer) 37.50% share, followed by Punjab (15%), Uttar Pradesh (12.5%), Delhi (11.25%), Haryana (11.25%), Rajasthan (10%) and Uttarakhand (2.5%) [2].
Project Area (in hectares)4046.86
Level of Investment (in USD)4,340,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population6
Start Date2009
Company Names or State EnterprisesSasan Power Limited from India
Reliance Industries from India
Relevant government actorsComputer and Auditor General , Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Ministry of Coal, Madhya Pradesh Government
International and Financial InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
State Bank of India from India
Bank of China from China
China Export Import Bank from China
Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im US) from United States of America
Standard Chartered Bank from United Kingdom
China Development Bank (CDB) from China
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersGreen Peace India, National Alliance for People’s Movements, Sasan Ultra Mega Power Visthapit Avam Mazdoor Sangh (Union Sasan Ultra Mega Power Affected and Labourers), Srijan Lokhit Samiti
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseNegotiated alternative solution
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Land demarcation
Strengthening of participation
Violent targeting of activists
Institutional changes
Development of Alternatives1. All the project affected people should be given identity cards for which the Reliance Company had completed the work of taking photographs and details back in 2010.

2. All affected people who had been working at contractual posts should be provided permanent jobs and that even if the contractual job is over, the onus of providing jobs to affected people should be on the company.

3. The boundary wall of the Sasan project is being built around the road built under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, and till the people are not adequately compensated for the road, the boundary wall should not be constructed.

4. The affected people who were working as contractual labour have been paid less wages and also their services have been terminated in 2010, their entire amount due should be paid to them.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Project affected people had been demanding for permanent jobs at the Project but instead of providing them with permanent jobs, they had been snatched of their daily wage contractual jobs [1]

Also, the allocated coal mine blocks and change of the land use are under controversy.
Sources and Materials

Forest Right Act (Government of India)
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Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988
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National Environment Policy


Displacement in Singrauli Region: Entitlements and Rehabilitation
[click to view]

Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment and the Crisis of Development By Bruce Rich (page 39-43)

protest&source=bl&ots=lkNySHfaS&Xsig=akFgamtlXVCvEXJkhgsmVO8IHLU&hl=en&sa=&Xei=ugRpUreMGoWCrAeKyoHQBw&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=singrauli protest&f=false
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[1] Reliance resorts to human rights abuses in Singrauli, Madhya Pradesh amidst illegal arrests
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[3]Upcoming Projects
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[4] Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project
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[5]Sasan UMPP
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[6] CAG slams environment ministry for favouring Reliance Power
[click to view]

[8] A case study of how ultra mega power plants has meant environmental destruction, loss of livelihood to the local people
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Despair for Singrauli farmers as govt pushes power projects
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[2] Indian Sasan Coal Fired Power Project Factsheet

Power Project FactsheetFinal.pdf
[click to view]

[7] Singrauli : the coal curse
[click to view]

Media Links

Reliance Power coal blocked!
[click to view]

Sasan Project CERs valued at Rs 2000cr for 10-yrs: RPower
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSohan Prasad Sha & Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update20/07/2014