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Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project, India


The Sasan project is one of nine Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) plants being pursued by the Indian government. Sasan UMPP is a pit-head coal-based thermal power plant [1] The Sasan Power Project is owned by Sasan Power Limited, which is a subsidiary of Reliance Industries. Production capacity of the plant will be 3,960 MW (6x660 MW) and there will be an associated captive coal mine [2]. Reliance Power Ltd is executing 3960 MW Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) through its wholly owned subsidiary Sasan Power Ltd. Sasan UMPP has been allotted 3 captive coal mines - namely Moher, Moher - Amlohri extension and Chhattrasal. These are the largest mines in the country in terms of volume handled.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project, India
State or province:Madhya Pradesh
Location of conflict:Village - Shasan; District-Singrauli
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Coal extraction and processing
Thermal power plants
Specific commodities:Coal
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The plant will generate 3,960 MW (UMPP) - 6x660 MW and coal will be supplied from an associated captive coal mine. The Annual Emissions will about 26-27 million tons of carbon dioxide per year for both the mine and local refinery. The plant will emit 832 grams carbon dioxide per kilowatt hour. The power will be used by Madhya Pradesh (Lead Procurer) 37.50% share, followed by Punjab (15%), Uttar Pradesh (12.5%), Delhi (11.25%), Haryana (11.25%), Rajasthan (10%) and Uttarakhand (2.5%) [2].

Project area:4046.86
Level of Investment:4,340,000,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:6
Start of the conflict:2009
Company names or state enterprises:Sasan Power Limited from India
Reliance Industries from India
Relevant government actors:Computer and Auditor General , Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Ministry of Coal, Madhya Pradesh Government
International and Finance InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
State Bank of India from India
Bank of China from China
China Export Import Bank from China
Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im US) from United States of America
Standard Chartered Bank from United Kingdom
China Development Bank (CDB) from China
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Green Peace India, National Alliance for People’s Movements, Sasan Ultra Mega Power Visthapit Avam Mazdoor Sangh (Union Sasan Ultra Mega Power Affected and Labourers), Srijan Lokhit Samiti
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Land demarcation
Negotiated alternative solution
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Violent targeting of activists
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of alternatives:1. All the project affected people should be given identity cards for which the Reliance Company had completed the work of taking photographs and details back in 2010.
2. All affected people who had been working at contractual posts should be provided permanent jobs and that even if the contractual job is over, the onus of providing jobs to affected people should be on the company.
3. The boundary wall of the Sasan project is being built around the road built under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, and till the people are not adequately compensated for the road, the boundary wall should not be constructed.
4. The affected people who were working as contractual labour have been paid less wages and also their services have been terminated in 2010, their entire amount due should be paid to them.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Project affected people had been demanding for permanent jobs at the Project but instead of providing them with permanent jobs, they had been snatched of their daily wage contractual jobs [1]
Also, the allocated coal mine blocks and change of the land use are under controversy.
Sources & Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988
[click to view]

Forest Right Act (Government of India)
[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

National Environment Policy

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment and the Crisis of Development By Bruce Rich (page 39-43)

Displacement in Singrauli Region: Entitlements and Rehabilitation
[click to view]

protest&source=bl&ots=lkNySHfaS&Xsig=akFgamtlXVCvEXJkhgsmVO8IHLU&hl=en&sa=&Xei=ugRpUreMGoWCrAeKyoHQBw&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=singrauli protest&f=false
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Despair for Singrauli farmers as govt pushes power projects
[click to view]

[2] Indian Sasan Coal Fired Power Project Factsheet

Power Project FactsheetFinal.pdf
[click to view]

[7] Singrauli : the coal curse
[click to view]

[1] Reliance resorts to human rights abuses in Singrauli, Madhya Pradesh amidst illegal arrests
[click to view]

[3]Upcoming Projects
[click to view]

[4] Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project
[click to view]

[5]Sasan UMPP
[click to view]

[6] CAG slams environment ministry for favouring Reliance Power
[click to view]

[8] A case study of how ultra mega power plants has meant environmental destruction, loss of livelihood to the local people
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Sasan Project CERs valued at Rs 2000cr for 10-yrs: RPower
[click to view]

Reliance Power coal blocked!
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Sohan Prasad Sha & Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
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