The mineral-rich sand deposits (commonly called as Black Sand) in the 22 kilometer stretch between two tidal channels from Neendakara of the Ashtamudi Estuary and Kayamkulam of the Kayamkulam Lagoon, is called Chavara Deposits. This has been the only deposit so far in the Indian coast, to have a heavy mineral content running as high as 60 to 70%. They include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and monazite, which find uses in the titanium dioxide pigment industries and nuclear power reactors . Two public sector companies Indian Rare Earth Limited (IREL) and Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (KMML) have been engaged in mining in the area for over 50 years. This has resulted in decades-long protests from the people against the activities of the company.