Second airport in Jeju (air force base), south coast, South Korea

Communities on Jeju, South Korea's 'island of peace', are resisting a second airport threatening the island's farming. They have set up a protest camp and their resistance is garnering support from many organizations.


Description

Jeju, also called "The Island of Peace", is located off the coast of the South Korean peninsula. It is the biggest island of the Jeju autonomous province. The population of the island measures 604,000 [1]. It was argued that Jeju International Airport in Yongdam-dong, Jeju City, which has served the island since 1958, lacks the capacity to handle the rapidly growing numbers of tourists and flights [8]. In November 2015, the development plans for a second airport on Jeju island were released. The villages which will be affected by the project are Onpyeong, Sinsan, Susan 1, Nansan and Goseong. These villages were not consulted and were not asked to give their consent to the new airport being built [1]. The provincial government considered three alternatives; expanding the current airport, built a new airport with two runways, or build a second airport at another location. The third option was chosen, arguing it would cause less environmental and social disruption than the other two, and also it was the most cost-efficient of the three alternatives [16]. Apart from the airport itself, the plans include also an accompanying Air City, constituted by surrounding aviation dependent facilities such as malls, hotels, resorts, theme parks, golf courses and other facilities [1].

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Basic Data
NameSecond airport in Jeju (air force base), south coast, South Korea
CountryRepublic of Korea
ProvinceSouth Korea
SiteSusan-ri, Sinsan-ri, Nansan-ri, Goseong-ri and Onpyeong-r in Jeju
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Ports and airport projects
Military installations
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Specific CommoditiesLand
Transport services, military services
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe second airport project includes building a 3,200-meter runway with a budget of 4.87 trillion won ($4.3 billion) to handle over 25 million visitors to the island a year [3, 17].
Project Area (in hectares)495
Level of Investment (in USD)4,300,650,000 [3]
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date2015
Company Names or State Enterprises Posco Engineering & Construction (POSCO) from Republic of Korea
Relevant government actorsThe Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation

Ministry of Strategy and Finance
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAlliance of the People of Jeju, Jeju green party, Jeju labor party, women peasants'movement Jeju, federation of farmers'associations Jeju, Minjung Party
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Trade unions
Women
Religious groups
Jeju green party
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Blockades
Development of a network/collective action
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Villagers were having their heads publicly shaved — a traditional form of desperate protest — by the fountain in front of the South Korea’s presidential office
are employing traditional shamanic culture to protest the airport that is slated to displace the populations of five villages [14]
100 life and peace bows [11]
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Noise pollution, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseNew Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.There was a substantial victory for the protesters: The two parties agreed to reevaluate the original feasibility studies done on the proposed area [12,15]. However, the ministry of land, infrastructure, and transport reinitiated the project as they ordered the service to start the general plan of the airport. They re-conducted the feasibility study regarding the site of the construction of the airport [9]. The mobilizations continue.
Sources and Materials
References

[2] Roser Bridger (GAAM) 2017. Second Jeju airport resistance intensifies – protest camp and hunger strike (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[1] Roser Bridger 2016 Jeju Islanders resist airport megaproject. The Ecologist. (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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GAAM. Indigenous Islanders Continue Fight Against 2nd Airport on Jeju Island, South Korea–Hunger Strike Passes its 40th Day (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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Links

[4] Plane Madness? Second Airport Plan Angers Jeju Islanders. Ben Jackson. 2017. (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[7] Protest grows over construction of new Jeju airport (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[9] 제주 2공항 건설 행정절차 6개월만에 재개 (4th of Jan. the ministry of land, infrastructure, and transport reinitiated project as they ordered the service to start the general plan of the airport.) (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[10] 제주민중연대 출범…"영리병원 철회·제2공항 반대"16th Feb Alliance of the People of Jeju is created with the participation of 9 organizations based in Jeju. (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[12] Substantial Victory for Indigenous Villages Opposing 2nd Airport on Jeju Island, South Korea? (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[3]Jeju reviews second airport plan again (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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Construction of new Jeju airport delayed due to protests (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[6] Villagers fight second airport plan.2016 (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[8] Jeju, Gimhae airport projects stir renewed controversy (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[13] Indigenous Islanders Continue Fight Against 2nd Airport on Jeju Island, South Korea–Hunger Strike Passes its 40th Day (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[14] Indigenous Islanders are Employing Shamanic Symbolism to Resist Jeju Island’s Proposed 2nd Airport. (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[15] 부실의혹 검증 전격 합의...제주 제2공항 갈등 해결 전기 (accessed on 20.02.2019)
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[16] New Airport to Bring Growth to Jeju Island (accessed on 21.02.2019)
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[17] Central for aviation
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Media Links

제주 제2공항 반대대책위 공식출범 ‘총력투쟁’ 예고 (Jeju 2nd Airport Anti-Air Police Officially Launched)
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[11] Activist facebook page
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[5] Save Jeju now website
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A video by Lee Ki-cheol. On Feb. 25th, around 100 people gathered in front of Jeju Island government hall to carry out 100 life and peace bows
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Other Documents

Sign reads ‘You’re trashing our hometown and we’ll have nowhere to go’. Photo: Pagansweare.com
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Campaign against 2nd airport press conference outside Jeju Provincial Office launching the protest camp on 10th October 2017 Photo: 연합뉴스

https://antiaero.org/2017/10/23/second-jeju-airport-resistance-intensifies-protest-camp-and-hunger-strike/
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Source: https://www.koreaexpose.com/jeju-airport-plan-angers-locals/ Villagers from Seongsan having their heads shaved publicly, which is a traditional form of protest
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Source:http://www.jemin.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=571149 Protests February 2019. It can be read "Bypassing Procedure & Local communities! Stop Jeju 2nd Airport"
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Source: https://pagansweare.com/2015/12/28/indigenous-islanders-are-employing-shamanic-symbolism-to-resist-jeju-islands-proposed-2nd-airport/ Residents dressed as Jeju’s three founding father figures, Go, Yang and Boo, the mythical original residents of Jeju Island.
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Photos by Song Dong-hyo Feb. 25th, 100 people's 100 bows to stop the 2nd Jeju airport (air force base) project in front of the Jeju island government hall
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Meta Information
ContributorEmmy Iwarson, Rose Stay Grounded, Hyerim Yoon, SM (ICTA-UAB)
Last update27/02/2019
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