The Paraíba Valley is located in the transition between the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and close to the Atlantic Ocean coast. Nowadays, the Valley is famous for its industry – centred on the automobile, ironworks, and aerospace manufactures– and for being an important contributor to Brasil’s GDP. Initially covered by swamps in the plain areas and Atlantic forest in the mountainous regions surrounding it, the Valley has lost most of its biodiversity due to different human uses for the land. While big coffee plantations where the main crop until its crisis the 1930s, agricultural production progressively turned to cattle (mostly for milk) and rice. In the past decades, though, eucalyptus monocultures have been substituting these traditional activities to produce cellulose fibres. São Luiz do Paraitinga is located in the Paraíba Valley and is an area that has been suffering a process of changes in the use of the soil for the economic activities. Historically, the agriculture of smallholders was the main activity of the city. The city have strong traditional and culture related to the land and was safeguard of the countryside culture . The eucalyptus arrives in the municipality of São Luiz do Paraitinga for the governmental incentives during the military dictatorial period, in first years of the 1970 decade .