Water policy in Ghana – the first independent sub-Saharan African country, and one of the first to be targeted by privatization policies, has undergone a slow but radical change over the years. During the 1980s, the Rawlings regime saw external funders, especially the World Bank and the IMF, directing the restructuring of the Ghanaian economy as a condition for receiving loans. Water reforms in the 1980s included sacking staff in the publicly owned Ghana Water and Sewage Corporation (GWSC), attempts to curb non-revenue water and an emphasis on ‘cost recovery’, which later would lead to 95 percent increase in water tariffs in May 2001. By 1999, the GWSC had been replaced by the Ghana Water Company Ltd. While 100% state owned, it was not responsible for rural water services nor for sewage disposal, as these were not seen profitable enough. According to On the Commons project, "In the same year, the World Bank’s plans snarled up on the issue of national sovereignty: the government objected to the accusation of corrupt tendering practices, and the World Bank withdrew its US$100 million loan – but with an eye to elections the following year." In fact, the new New Patriotic Party government resulted to be much more in favour of the World Bank’s ‘reforms’ than Rawlings’ National Democratic Congress, and organized an international tender for the [public-private partnership] lease contract. In March 2000, the government of Ghana awarded a 30-year Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) contract for one half of the country, including the capital Accra, to the US company Azurix, a subsidiary of Enron. The move met with the opposition of residents and national organizations. In 2001, 9 transnational corporations were shortlisted.