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Windmills in the Koyna Sanctuary, Western Ghats of Maharashtra

Several Indian companies involved in the installation of more than 200 windmills in the Koyna Sanctuary. The project also comprises 10 resorts and a dam. Local EJOs claim biodiversity loss and local displacement.


In 1996 the Indian government leased land in Satara district (Maharasthtra) for a windmill demonstration project. Later it bought the land from villagers at a cheap price to set up four 3.75 MW windmills. A few years later (1999) Suzlon purchased land from villages within a 20 km radius to expand wind power in the region. The company acquired the land cheaply, having told villagers that they would get employment. However, they only received temporal contracts. Grazing – the major previous land use – is now banned on the land occupied by windmills. Other companies like Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Star and Sarita Chemicals then invested in the Suzlon windmills becoming owners of windfarms. This companies sell the electricity to the Maharashtra State Electricity Board at Rs.3.16 per kwh, while they consume electricity at a concessional rate of Rs.1.20 per kwh. In the year 2010 1,240 windmills where already installed in Satara. From this total, 215 were located inside the Koyna Sanctuary (with a 80 MW capacity). The Sanctuary was notified in 1985; it has 42,355 ha and is bedecked with dense forest and rich biodiversity. It encompasses the core area of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve, and is also an important bird area for endangered species, including the red-headed vulture and white stork. Various villages are located in its delimitations.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Windmills in the Koyna Sanctuary, Western Ghats of Maharashtra
State or province:Maharashtra
Location of conflict:Satara district
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Establishment of reserves/national parks
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific commodities:Land
Carbon offsets
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Suzlon purchased land from villages within a 20 km radius. Other companies like Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Star and Sarita Chemicals then invest in the Suzlon windmills becoming owners of windfarms.

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Project area:42,355
Level of Investment:100,000,000
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:01/01/2001
End of the conflict:2015
Company names or state enterprises:Suzlon Energy from India - Developer
Bajaj Auto from India - Investor
Tata Motors from India - Investor
Sarita Chemicals from India
Ghodawat Energy Pvt. Ltd. (GEPL) from India
Bharat Forge Ltd from India
Relevant government actors:Maharashtra Government
Bombay Supreme Court
The Central Empowered Committee (gives recommendations to the Supreme Court on forest-related matters)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Creative Nature Friends (Karad-based non-profit environmental NGO)
BirdLife International, a global network of bird conservation organisations.
Other supporters such as Mohan Maruti Maskar Patil (a journalist in Satara who studies the impact of windmills on wildlife) and Rohan Bhate, another naturalist in the region.
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
Project temporarily suspended
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:It seems that the forest department has decided to seal windmills. However, there is still a conflict of interests on this case. There are many companies involved in windmills and other projects in the region. There is also corruption involving politicians, while government agencies have contradictory stands on the case.
Sources & Materials
Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Nikhil Deshmukh, Satara Windmill, in: The Times of India
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Nikhil Deshmukh , Kolhapur forest officials seal windmills in Koyna, in The Times of India, May 23, 2015
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Nikhil Deshmukh , Land lease policy for windmills on cards, in The Times of India, June 22,2010
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Kanchan Chaudhari, Windmills in Koyna to stay, but construction not allowed, in:

Hindustan Times, Mumbai, Jul 19, 2011
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Larry Lohmann, Climate politics. Occupation and privatization, 16 April 2007,
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Kumar Sambhav Shrivastava, Garima Goel; Koyna sanctuary plundered, in: Down to Earth, Thursday 13 January 2011
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Other documents
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Meta information
Contributor:Sofía Avila Calero
Last update29/03/2017
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