Although South Africa has a long legacy with gold, variability and declines in global gold prices and rising labor and electricity costs have led to widespread mine closures. Consequently, the speed at which mines are shutting down has led to a boom in informal mining, especially across the Golden Arc, a basin spanning from Johannesburg into the Free State and North West province. Mamy abandoned mines have now been taken over by zama zamas and the violentsyndicates that control them . Zama zamas, a Zulu term for “those who take a chance to try to get something from nothing,” are informal miners [5. 4]. ENACT, a project by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Interpol, and the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime, states that that illegal gold mining in South Africa is some of the most violent in Africa and is responsible for $1.2 billion in lost tax revenue yearly . Not only is the work in frequently collapsing mine shafts dangerous, but the zama zamas are also regular victims of cartels often working in tandem with police to rob the miners at gunpoint or coerce them into working for them. Yet they have little other choice owing to a lack of other options for supporting themselves financially .