Please zoom in or out and select the base layer according to your preference to make the map ready for printing, then press the Print button above.

Tin Mining Conflicts in Bangka-Belitung, Indonesia


Description

The Bangka Belitung Province is made up of approximately 470 islands off the coast of Sumatra, out of which around 50 are inhabited. The two main islands Bangka and Belitung measure 1.6 million ha in total, out of which 75% are licensed for mining by local companies, the biggest two being PT Timah and PT Kobatin (1). The province's on- and offshore tin resources have been exploited for centuries. In 2013, the province accounted for a third of the global tin supply, and its production equalled 106,000 tonnes. The larger part of the tin is produced for the international market, and used foremost in consumer electronics (2) (3).  In addition to the large tract of land covered by mining concessions, oil palm plantations occupy another 230,000 ha of the province. This leaves only 300,000 ha of land for other uses, such as residential areas and other cultivation. The risk for agrarian conflict is rising by every concession grant, since the agricultural land of the islanders is compromised (1).  The mining governance is decentralised to the regional level and under poor regulation and monitoring (1) (2). In 2001, the Bangka Belitung regent issued a decree that have the private persons to mine tin in the province . Mining areas have expanded into protected forests and marine ecosystems, conservation forests as well as into residential areas (2). There are currently 44 companies operating in Bangka Belitung's protected forests, and 4 in its conservation forest (1).  

Due to neglection of regulations regarding safety, and good digging practices, landslides and accidents are frequent. Cases of child labour have been reported, and the industry causes the death of approximately 150 miners every year (3) (4). Further, on-land mining activities reduce the biodiversity and increases the risk of floods. The tin is often washed in rivers and watersheds, leading to pollution and reduced fish populations (5). Offshore mining activities generate changes the ocean biodiversity and water quality as well as it threatens the province's coral reefs, out of which 50% are already reported to be in a critical condition (2) (3). Moreover, according to law, former mining sites must be transformed into reclamation projects, such as farms or plantations. However, many are abandoned (3). Land conversion is costly, and 64% of the Bangka-Belitung land area is comprised by abandoned pits, which are both dangerous and a source of diseases, such as dengue and malaria, due to stagnant water they hold (1). 

Friends of the Earth have released several campaigns globally, focusing on targeting big corporations such as Microsoft, Asus, HTC and Huawei who are sourcing tin unsustainably from the Bangka Belitung region (4). Activists and community members have repeatedly arranged street marches and protested at company and government offices as well as at sourcing sites, calling for an ending to the sourcing off tin from the province (6) (7) (8). Further, cases of intra-community conflicts have been and are continuing to be seen as a result of mining activities (9). Local protests have at best resulted in temporary production stops, but conflicts continue to take place (10).  

Basic Data

NameTin Mining Conflicts in Bangka-Belitung, Indonesia
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceSumatra
SiteBangka-Belitung
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level

Source of Conflict

Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Specific CommoditiesTin

Project Details and Actors

Project DetailsApproximately 75% of the province land is currently under mining licenses, although the production has expanded into both protected and conservation forests, as well as to local people's plantations and residential areas (WALHI, 2014). The total yearly production was 106,000 as of 2013, and every year 5,400 ha of land is converted into mining pits (Nurtjahya, Franklin & Agustina, 2017). Around 64% of the total province area is covered by abandoned pits (WALHI, 2014).
Project Area (in hectares)1200000
Type of PopulationUnknown
Potential Affected Population1,372,813 (total province population)
Company Names or State EnterprisesBuyung - Operations on 0.02 ha of conservation forest in Bangka Barat
PT Serumpun Sebalai from Indonesia - Operations on 1,9 ha of conservation forests, Bangka Tengah
PT Seirama Tin Investment from Indonesia - Operations on 6.4 ha of conservation forests in Belitung
PT Chandra Sakti from Indonesia - Operations on 0.07 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
Comfortindo Bangka from Indonesia - Operations on 32.59 ha of protected forest in Bangka
PT Karya Cipta Lahanindo from Indonesia - Operation on 1.12 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Karya Mitra Abadi from Indonesia - Operations on 2,56 ha of protected forest in Bangka Timur
PT Keranji Jaya Utama from Indonesia - Operations on 20.16 ha of protected forest in Bangka Selatan
PT Korinco Mitra Inkobe from Indonesia - Operations on 32,74 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Menara Cipta Mulia (MCM) from Indonesia - Operations on 740.09 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
Pacific Inter Mining (PIMS) from Australia - Operations on 49.4 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Pandan Alam Jaya from Indonesia - Operations on 7,27 ha of protected forest in Belitung
Anugrah Persada from Indonesia - Operations on 21.5 ha of protected forest in Belitung
PT Bangka Belitung Timah Sejahtera from Indonesia - Operations on 23.61 ha of protected forest in Bangka & Bangka Barat
PT Belitung Industri Sejahtera from Indonesia - Operations on 27.47 ha of protected forest in Belitung & Belitung Timur
PT Billiton Batubara Indonesia from Indonesia - Operations on 149.61 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Buana Belitung Gemilang (BBG) from Indonesia - Operations on 26.5 ha of protected forest in Belitung
PT Bumi Berkah Billiton from Indonesia - Operations on 10.71 ha of protected forest in Belitung
PT Bumi Hero Perkasa from Indonesia - Operations on 41 ha of conservation forest and protected forest in Belitung
DUDU JN. - Operations on 1 ha of protected forest in Bangka Barat
EDY SA'ARY from Indonesia - Operations on 1,01 ha of protected forest in Bangka Barat
Guardian Sejahtera from Indonesia - Operations on 49.95 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
H. Hamzah - Operations on 1 ha of protected forest in Bangka Barat
PT Karya Emas Multisani from Indonesia - Operations on 3,12 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Lembah Tinindo Sejati from Indonesia - Operations on 11,05 ha of protected forest in Bangka
PT Mitra Stania Prima (MSP) from Indonesia - Operations on 1,03 ha of protected forest in Bangka
NN Brothers from Indonesia - Operations on 4 ha of protected forest in Bangka Barat
PT Nurindra Eka Perkasa from Indonesia - Operations on 0,5 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Putra Timur Setia from Indonesia - Operations on 8,37 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Simpang Pesak Indokwarsa from Indonesia - Operations on 0,02 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Sumber Alam Dirgamaju from Indonesia - Operations on 1.61 ha of protected forest in Bangka
PT Suparman - Operations on 1 ha of protected forest in Bangka Barat
PT Tambang Timah from Indonesia - Operations on 1.6 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Tumbak Mas from Indonesia - Operations on 16.31 ha of protected forest in Belitung Timur
PT Yinchen Tinindo Belitung from Indonesia - Operations on 65.23 ha of protected forest in Belitung
PT Timah (Persero) TBK from Indonesia - Operations on 3.201,17 ha of conservation forest and 28.131 ha of protected forest in Bangka, Bangka Barat, Bangka Selatan, Bangka Tengah & Lintas Kabupaten
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersFriends of the Earth Indonesia (WALHI) & Friends of the Earth Netherlands (Milieudefensie)

The Conflict and the Mobilization

Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingArtisanal miners
Farmers
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationInvolvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Boycotts of companies-products

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Other Environmental impacts, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Noise pollution
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage)
OtherSoil degradation
Health ImpactsVisible: Infectious diseases, Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood
Potential: Displacement, Land dispossession

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseMigration/displacement
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The mining operations in the province are still underway.

Sources and Materials

Legislations

Law No. 5/1999 on Natural Biodiversity Conservation & Ecosystem

Law No. 41/1999 on Forestry

References

(2) Nurtjahya, E., Franklin, J., & Agustina, F. (2017). The Impact of tin mining in Bangka Belitung and its reclamation studies. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 101, p. 04010). EDP Sciences.

(5) Irawan, R. R., Sumarwan, U., Suhardjo, B., & Djohar, S. (2014). Strategic model of tin mining industry in indonesia (Case study of Bangka Belitung Province). International Journal of Business and Management Review, 2(3), 48-58.

Links

(6) Tribunnews, 2013. Walhi: Samsung, Apple, Intel Jangan Beli Timah Konflik dari Babel
http://www.tribunnews.com/regional/2013/12/11/walhi-samsung-apple-intel-jangan-beli-timah-konflik-dari-babel

(10) Reuters, 2010. Indonesia's Timah stops 6 small tin dredges after green protest
https://www.reuters.com/article/tin-indonesia-timah/indonesias-timah-stops-6-small-tin-dredges-after-green-protest-idUSL3E6NM0MI20101222

(1) WALHI & Milieudefensie, 2014. Grim Portraits of Bangka Belitung Tin Mining: Demanding global, national and local responsibility to restore Bangka Belitung islands following negative tin mining impacts.
https://milieudefensie.nl/publicaties/rapporten/grim-portraits-of-tin-mining-on-bangka-belitung-indonesia

(3) The Guardian, 2012. Death metal: Tin mining in Indonesia
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/nov/23/tin-mining-indonesia-bangka

(8) Kompas, 2011. Tambang Timah di Laut, Nelayan Protes
https://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2011/03/02/10543325/tambang.timah.di.laut.nelayan.protes

(9) Bangka Pos, 2017. Pemprov Turunkan Tim Atasi Kericuhan di Tempilang



(9) Bangka Pos, 2017. Pemprov Turunkan Tim Atasi Kericuhan di Tempilang
http://bangka.tribunnews.com/2017/12/11/pemprov-turunkan-tim-atasi-kericuhan-di-tempilang

(4) The Guardian, 2014. Campaign against tin mining in Bangka island targets Microsoft
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/may/30/tin-mining-bangka-island-microsoft-indonesia

(7) Mongabay, 2018. Fokus Liputan: Cerita di Balik Kemilau Timah Bangka-Belitung (Bagian 3)
http://www.mongabay.co.id/2018/01/18/fokus-liputan-cerita-di-balik-kemilau-timah-bangka-belitung-bagian-3/

Other Documents

Mining site, Desa Pemali Source: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2014/may/29/tin-mining-on-bangka-island-of-indonesia-in-pictures
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/bb02adbc-fe39-40b8-9f6c-b8b65fe2e082-2060x1342.jpeg

Mining site, Bangka Source: http://www.mongabay.co.id/2013/03/30/urgen-wajibkan-tambang-tak-rusak-lingkungan-dan-bahayakan-manusia/bangka_gallery01/
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/bangka_gallery01.jpg

Meta Information

ContributorEmmy Iwarsson (ICTA-UAB)
Last update20/03/2018

Images

 

Mining site, Desa Pemali

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2014/may/29/tin-mining-on-bangka-island-of-indonesia-in-pictures

Mining site, Bangka

Source: http://www.mongabay.co.id/2013/03/30/urgen-wajibkan-tambang-tak-rusak-lingkungan-dan-bahayakan-manusia/bangka_gallery01/