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Bauxite Mining in Paderu, Visakhapatnam, India


AnRak Aluminium, a company of the government of Ras al-Khaimah of the United Arab Emirates and Penna Cement of AP has secured approval for both an aluminium complex and a bauxite mines in the Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, but the final forest clearance for the mines is awaited. The AnRak project has replicated the Vedanta model of first building the refinery and then setting up the mine. The mine is to be operated by the state government to circumvent the ban on non-tribal landownership.

Opponents allege that the state government has disregarded the huge environmental and social impact and popular protests against mining bauxite in the Jerrela Hills, inhabited almost exclusively by adivasi tribes who will be displaced (1).

Construction is now in progress at the site in Makavarapalem in Visakhapatnam district though the construction of roads and other infrastructure for the mines remains incomplete due to significant local opposition.

The surrounding villages remain within metres of the proposed site and its polluting activities. Another concern for local residents and Visakhapatnam city residents is the 38 million litres of water per day that has been allocated to AAL from the controversial Polavaram project (GVMC But Visakhapatnam city is already starved of water and since the Polavaram project is mired in litigation, it is not certain when, or if, there will be any water available at all.

The people of Visakhapatnam district demand that the Andhra Pradesh government should not allow bauxite mining. An all-party committee opposing the mining called for the shutdown to protest Chief Minister N. Kiran Kumar Reddys visit to Paderu.

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Bauxite Mining in Paderu, Visakhapatnam, India
State or province:Andhra Pradesh
Location of conflict:Paderu
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Mineral ore exploration
Specific commodities:Aluminum/Bauxite

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Andhra Pradesh reserves have been estimated to 1000 million tonnes, out of which 570 million tonnes are at Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts in 25 pockets covering an area of about 4775 ha. Prominently these deposits are divided into two groups viz. Araku and Chintapalli. All these areas fall in the reserve forest and notified scheduled tribal area. The Government of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP) has reserved these deposits for exclusive exploitation in public sector vide G.O.Ms.No. 999, Industries and commerce (Mines-I) Department, dt. 25.10.1975.

Accordingly, the Corporation has filed mining lease applications for all these bauxite areas. AAL hopes to mine first the blocks in the Jerrela mountains, close to Chintapalli in Visakhapatnam district and about 90 km from the AAL site, containing a total of 246 million tonnes of bauxite. The original environmental application for AAL was for a 1.5 MTPA (million tonnes per annum) refinery, a 0.25 MTPA smelter, and a 90 MW power plant at Makavarapalem in Visakhapatnam district of AP at a cost of Rs 7,000 crore on 1,380 acres of land. AAL now reports that it has 1,926 acres of land available (AnRak Aluminium Ltd 2012b) where significant construction work is currently underway.

After the environmental clearances were secured, production estimates were increased to 3.85 MTPA (Ministry of Environment and Forests 2009). At this rate of mining, Block III will last for 17 years while the total ore deposits of 224.60 million tonnes will be sufficient for about 60 years of AAL’s operations. The sole approval remaining for Jerrela is the forest clearance from MOEF.

Project area:1932
Level of Investment:484731067
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:19/12/2012
Company names or state enterprises:Jindal South West Holding Ltd from India
Industries & Commerce and Govt. of RAS Al Khaimah
Anrak Aluminium Ltd from India
Relevant government actors:Andhra Pradesh Mineral Development Corporation, Government of Andhra Pradesh
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Political Parties, Telugu Desam Party, Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India-Marxist and some peoples groups

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches


Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place


Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Bauxite mining in this region would displace the tribals, affect their livelihood and harm the environment

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Andhra Pradesh Mineral Development Corporation Limited

Alienation of Land Transfer Regulation Act


New Projects MOU

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Economic and Political Weekly,

AnRak Aluminium, Another Vedanta in the Making? (attached)

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Special powers to be used to cancel Bauxite lease in Andhra Pradesh

Shutdown in Visakhapatnam to protest bauxite mining

Cancel bauxite mining leases in Vizag: House panel

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Tribal Women Bash Up TDP MLA In

Meta information

Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update08/04/2014



Public hearing. CPM state secretary B.V. Raghavulu addresses the gathering at ITDA Paderu in Visakhapatnam district on Friday. — DECCAN CHRONICLE