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International Airport in Kertajati or Bandara Internasional Jawa Barat (BIJB), Java, Indonesia


Description:

According to Global Anti-aerotropolis Movement (GAAM) : Plans for a major airport in Majalengka, on an enormous 5,000 hectare site in a predominantly rural administrative area in the West Java province, first surfaced in 2004. Kertajati International Airport is located around 68 kilometers east of Bandung (A touristic area). The intervening twelve years have been marked by vigorous resistance against displacement for the project, now named Kertajati Airport and also referred to as Bandara Internasional Jawa Barat (BIJB)[5,6,7].

The developer of Kertajati Airport is PT. Bandarudara Internasional Jawa Barat (BIJB), referred to in English as West Java Airport and Aerocity Development Company.

According to GAAM, this airport is  being constructed to spur commercial and industrial development on the farmland surrounding the airport. Plans have been outlined for Kertajati Airport to become a gateway to West Java [13]; the airport and Aerocity would be an economic centre for the region, with direct access to the established Karawang industrial zone. Kertajati Airport is just one of 84 large scale infrastructure projects planned in West Java, including power plants, ports and roads [14, 6]. Moreover, it seems that  there is a military component. Indonesia’s state owned aerospace manufacturer,  PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PTDI), a firm servicing both civilian and military aircraft, has intented to relocate from its current location in Bandung to a larger 300 hectare site on the land surrounding Kertajati Airport [6]. And the aerotropolis scheme has spawned a plan for yet another megaproject; a power plant [15]. This 190 hectare energy complex is planned for the aerotropolis to meet its own energy requirements, as the electricity supply currently under construction will only be sufficient to supply the airport, not the Aerocity [6].

Ten villages in the Kertajati sub-district have been wiped from the map for the airport and aerotropolis. But Sukamulya village remains, and residents are determined to avoid the fate of displaced people from neighbouring villages that have been obliterated, who were given inadequate compensation for loss of their homes and farmland [5,6].

The Front Perjuangan Rakyat Sukamulya (FPRS), which translates as the Sukamulya People's Struggle Front, was formed to resist eviction for the airport and is supported by Indonesian land rights and agrarian reform NGO Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA). KPA maintains that the chiefs of the 11 affected villages unilaterally supported the airport project, against the will of the majority of residents who rejected the plan [5,6].

On 8th June 2007  hundreds of people protested against the threat of eviction facing at least 16,000 people from five villages [8]. Speeches were followed by a mock trial of the Majalengka Regent, the head of the Regency. Protesters objected to lack of information about the airport project, including how much compensation they would receive from the government, and refused to be relocated [6].

In 2016, as shown in a video by FPRS [5], hundreds of people were participating in protests in and women were playing a leading role.  Road entrances to the village were being monitored day and night and blocked with tyres, preventing officials accessing land in order to measure it for the airport. A protest camp with a communal kitchen, using food harvested in Sukamulya and donated by villagers, helped maintain high spirits [6].

Two of the major protests were on 25th of January and 22th of February 2016 [9,10]. Hundreds of residents and their supporters rallied in front of the Majelengka land office and State Attorney office, arriving for the march in a procession of motorbikes and trucks carrying banners and posters. Rousing speeches voiced residents’ opposition to the construction of Kertajati Airport and the land acquisition process, protesting that it was not being conducted according to regulations. Villagers vowed that they would remain in Sukamulya. 

On 1st March 2016 the International Land Coalition (ILC) reported that 10 villages were evicted from their lands to make way for the new International Airport [11].

Local people have exposed intimidation and harassment by officials and state repression and brutality. One of the worst  violent events occurred on 18th November 2014 [12]. Without warning, hundreds of officials, surveyors escorted by armed police, arrived to measure land in the villages of Sukamulya and Sukakerta. Hundreds of residents attempted to block officials from entering the village area and police responded with violence, firing tear gas and rubber bullets. At least five people were detained and many citizens were injured from being trampled on and dragged along the road. Some people were beaten (the description of this conflict was taken from: Aviation Expansion in Indonesia. GAAM [1, 6])

According to the last news from BIJB website: "The construction of West Java International Airport Kertajati in Majalengka, West Java, is expected to be completed and can be operated by 2018"[16].

Basic Data

Name of conflict:International Airport in Kertajati or Bandara Internasional Jawa Barat (BIJB), Java, Indonesia
Country:Indonesia
State or province:Java
Location of conflict:Kertajati, Sukamulya village Majalengka
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Other
Ports and airport projects
Specific commodities:Land

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The Airport will have the capacity of up to 24 million passengers annually. It is being constructed to complement and eventually replace Husein Sastranegara International Airport in Bandung and also serve Cirebon and parts of West and Central Java [4].

The project consists of 1,800 hectares and will be equipped with an Aerotropolis, known as Kertajati Aerocity. Standing on 3,400 hectares or twice the size of the airport, this Aerotropolis will be a new center of economic growth [2].

Project implementation consists of five phases: preparation phase (2015), phase I (2015-2020), phase I-II (2016-2025), phase III (2025-2035) and phase IV (2035-2045). During Phase I, the project focused on airport development. Phases I-II will be concentrated on Kertajati Aerocity Development, phase III will be the growth of Kertajati as aerotropolis, and as the final phase, Kertajati Aerocity will act as an enabler of sustainable economic center. As of January 2018, airport development progress has reached 90 percent completion [3].

Project area:5,000
Level of Investment:267,400,000
Start of the conflict:2004
Company names or state enterprises:PT Angkasa Pura from Indonesia
PT Bandarudara Internasional Jawa Barat (BIJB) from Indonesia
PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PTDI) from Indonesia
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:The Front Perjuangan Rakyat Sukamulya (FPRS)
Global Anti-aerotropolis Movement (GAAM)
Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA)

Conflict and Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Development of a network/collective action
Land occupation
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches

Impacts of the project

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Air pollution, Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil erosion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Other Health impactssexual violence
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of landscape/sense of place

Outcome

Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:According to the last news in 2018 from BIJB website: "The construction of West Java International Airport Kertajati in Majalengka, West Java, is expected to be completed and can be operated by 2018"[16]

Sources and Materials

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[6] Rose Bridger. Sept 2016. Sukamulya villagers resist acquisition of farmland for Kertajati Airport
https://antiaero.org/2016/09/09/sukamulya-villagers-resist-acquisition-of-farmland-for-kertajati-airport/

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Warga Sukamulya Menolak Pembangunan BIJB
http://www.kpa.or.id/news/blog/warga-sukamulya-menolak-pembangunan-bjib/

[2] Jokowi Pastikan Bandara Kertajati Beroperasi Pertengahan 2018
https://regional.kompas.com/read/2017/12/28/16125141/jokowi-pastikan-bandara-kertajati-beroperasi-pertengahan-2018

[3] Early December, Kertajati Airport Development Reaches 76 Percent
http://www.en.netralnews.com/news/business/read/16539/early.december..kertajati.airport.development.reaches.76.percent

[4] Kertajati International Airport
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kertajati_International_Airport

BIJB-Railink Sign Transportation MoU for Kertajati Airport
http://www.en.netralnews.com/news/business/read/650/bijb.railink.sign.transportation.mou.for.kertajati.airport

[11] 10 villages evicted to develop a new International Airport. International Land Coalition. 2016
http://www.landcoalition.org/fr/regions/asia/news/10-villages-evicted-development-new-international-airport

[8] Warga Sukamulya Menolak Pembangunan Bandara. 2007
http://www.liputan6.com/news/read/142761/warga-sukamulya-menolak-pembangunan-bandara

[13] West Java’s Economic Ambition is in the Air. 2016
http://www.globalindonesianvoices.com/24708/west-javas-economic-ambition-is-in-the-air/

[14] Benteng Terakhir Sukamulya Melawan Gempuran Penggusuran
https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20160830125502-20-154805/benteng-terakhir-sukamulya-melawan-gempuran-penggusuran

KPA facebook 5th Sept 2016
https://www.facebook.com/pembaruanagraria/photos/a.517578665087179.1073741828.515937915251254/644144749097236/?type=3&theater

[9] Ratusan Warga Desa Sukamulya Tolak Pembangunan BIJB. January 2016
http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/jawa-barat/2016/01/25/358411/ratusan-warga-desa-sukamulya-tolak-pembangunan-bijb

[12] Warga Sukamulya Menolak Pembangunan BIJB. KPA
http://www.kpa.or.id/news/blog/warga-sukamulya-menolak-pembangunan-bjib/

[16] RI Announce to the World, Kertajati Airport Ready to Operate
https://bijb.co.id/en/ri-umumkan-ke-dunia-bandara-kertajati-siap-beroperasi/

[15]Kawasan Aerocity Bandara Kertajati Butuh Pembangkit Listrik. 2016
https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/797158/kawasan-aerocity-bandara-kertajati-butuh-pembangkit-listrik

[7] Warga Sukamulya “Siap Mati” Melawan Penggusuran. Sept 2016
http://sinarmedia-news.com/warga-sukamulya-siap-mati-melawan-penggusuran/

Majalengka`s Kertajati Airport to become operational in 2017
https://en.antaranews.com/news/102499/majalengkas-kertajati-airport-to-become-operational-in-2017

This Airport can Potentially Absorb the Traffic of Jakarta International Airport. 2017
https://seasia.co/2017/11/17/this-airport-can-potentially-absorb-the-traffic-of-jakarta-international-airport

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

[1] Aviation Expansion in Indonesia. GAAM.
https://intouchgis.maps.arcgis.com/apps/Shortlist/index.html?appid=e1ce3c468c794e68bc6208c7e65e7ed0

FRONT Perjuangan Rakyat Sukamulya
https://www.facebook.com/FRONT-Perjuangan-Rakyat-Sukamulya-218920895109112/

Jawa Barat International Airport (BIJB) & Kertajati Aerocity
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GbVTAC-HE-k

Bandara Internasional Kertajati | Kertajati International Airport | Bandara Internasional Jawa Barat
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYDg4WNCyeg

[10] RATUSAN WARGA SUKAMULYA DEMO PENDOPO TUNTUT PEMBAYARAN PEMBEBASAN LAHAN BIJB.2016
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2r8FwsNNRM

[5] Kemerdekaan Tidak Hadir di Desa Sukamulya Majalengka.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5TlYxQAdHVk

Aksi Damai FPRS (Front Perjuangan Rakyat Sukamulya) Majalengka
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdvZpMGQTlE

Other documents

Twitter: @Vindra_Dimas Domba domba menikmati makan siang di antara pembangunan terminal utama BIJB
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Foto_2.jpg

Source: Bandarakertajati.com Birdview of the Kertajati Airport in Java
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Foto1p.jpg-large.jpg

Source: KPA http://www.kpa.or.id/news/blog/warga-sukamulya-menolak-pembangunan-bjib/ Warga Sukamulya Menolak Pembangunan BIJB
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Foto_3_warga-sukamulya.jpg

Meta information

Contributor: GAAM, Stay Grounded and ICTA-UAB
Last update20/05/2018

Images

 

Twitter: @Vindra_Dimas

Domba domba menikmati makan siang di antara pembangunan terminal utama BIJB

Source: KPA http://www.kpa.or.id/news/blog/warga-sukamulya-menolak-pembangunan-bjib/

Warga Sukamulya Menolak Pembangunan BIJB

Source: Bandarakertajati.com

Birdview of the Kertajati Airport in Java