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Isiolo Airport, Kenya


Description

Land acquisition for upgrade and expansion of Isiolo Airport from a small airstrip to an international airport commenced in 2004 when Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) wrote to Isiolo County Council requesting that land be set aside for the project. The process of determining which people were the rightful owners of the land and therefore legally entitled to  compensation was fraught with difficulties. New Part Development Plans (PDPs) were issued, which participants of focus group discussions conducted by the Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI) said undermined security of tenure because people who wanted to re-allocate, or grab, land would be issued with a new PDP. This resulted in double or triple issuance of allotment letters over the same parcel of land.

Land rights of new allotment letter holders were pitted against those holding previously issued PDPs. Resettlement commenced in 2008, in three areas: Mwangaza, Kiwanjani and Chechelsi. Some of the plots were already occupied, a problem which community members said would have been known if they had been involved in the committees identifying the resettlement areas. Residents neighbouring the project site were apprehensive that their land would be targeted for future acquisition, or their use of it inhibited by continued reference to the land as being part of the airport complex. There were boundary disputes between affected communities and airport authorities. One incidence was in 2008 when KAA officials arrived to fence off and try to annex plots of land. Villagers drew their attention to a map showing that their land and properties were not part of the land allocated for airport expansion, a claim which was proved to be accurate.[1] Compensation disputes were still evident in November 2016, when operations of the expanded Isiolo Airport were imminent. The problem of over-allocation of land rights documents had caused chaos and many displaced people found it impossible to resettle in the designated areas. Yet more displacement loomed because a 16 hectare area was required, to be cleared for security reasons.[2]

Human rights tensions and failures

A 2017 report on tensions between land rights and development in Isiolo County, by human rights organization Hakijamii, found that the Isiolo Airport project had failed to uphold many aspects of human rights, pertaining to information, housing, employment, education and provision of water. Communities were not informed about the impacts of Isiolo Airport and other megaprojects on their lives. The airport is just one component of the LAPSSET Corridor, which also comprises Lamu Port, resort cities, a Standard Gauge Railway (SGR), oil refinery and pipeline. A majority of respondents to the survey for the Hakijamii report, 73 per cent, had not even been aware of the LAPSSET projects until eviction started around the land allocated for Isiolo Airport. Affected people had not been adequately involved in project implementation and, overall, the megaprojects had not enhanced any basic public services. Specifically with regard to the airport, prior to evictions in Mwangaza, inhabitants were hurriedly summoned to vacate land without adequate notice and were unable to prepare themselves practically or psychologically for relocation. Their rights to information and involvement were violated.

The issue of some of the land allocated for resettlement already being occupied had directly deprived people of their land and violatedtheir right to compensation. Thirty-two evicted Project Affected Persons (PAPs) had still not been compensated and their land dispute cases remained unresolved. Demolitions had led to failure to provide adequate housing for inhabitants of the Isiolo Airport area. Most affected residents had been forced to seek temporary shelter with family and friends. Residents had not been made aware that their parcels of land were located within the area allocated for the airport before inception of the expansion plan. Most of the jobs at Isiolo Airport had not been awarded to local people and 78.8 of respondents to Hakijamii’s survey felt that the airport expansion project had made people poorer.

The airport project also impacted negatively on rights to education; several learning institutions were adversely affected by evictions and those adjacent to the airport affected by noise pollution.[3] In May 2016, as the expanded airport prepared to commence operations, K L Nkengecia Primary School, established in the late 1980s on land donated by the community, just 1 kilometer from the runway, had yet to be relocated. Yet the school was encircled within the airport fence and the airport management denied them access. KAA had yet to fulfil its promise to relocate the school to an alternative site. In order to access their school pupils and teachers cut a hole in the fence. They continued to attend school in spite of the safety risks and with noise and pollution from aircraft and ongoing construction works affecting pupils’ ability to concentrate on their lessons.[4]

Water tensions

Expansion of Isiolo Airport reduced water supplies to Isiolo Town. Most of the water supply was devoted to the airport for construction and operations.[3] In May 2016 it was reported that thousands of residents in three wards of Meru County were left without water for two weeks when pipes supplying the county were ruptured by a bulldozer that was being used by a contractor working on Isiolo Airport. Dozens of women and men dug a shallow furrow in the banks of the Kithima River in an attempt to restore a water supply, and villagers were forced to make 20 kilometer journeys to access water. Construction of pipelines for the Isiolo Phase 2 Water Project, a key purpose of which was to increase the water supply to Isiolo Airport, caused more protracted tensions with local communities. Supplies of water from the two rivers from which water was being tapped for the airport were already strained, causing tension between communities downstream. Volumes of water receded drastically during dry weather, the flow reducing to a trickle. After a protest against the water project, on 11th April 2016, 26 residents, including six students,were arrested.[5]

Basic Data

NameIsiolo Airport, Kenya
CountryKenya
ProvinceIsiolo County and Meru County
SiteIsiolo
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level

Source of Conflict

Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Water access rights and entitlements
Land acquisition conflicts
Ports and airport projects
Specific CommoditiesWater
Land

Project Details and Actors

Project DetailsIsiolo Airport is developed and operated by Kenya Airports Authority (KAA), a government-owned enterprise. The 329.7 hectare site is situated on the border between Isiolo County and Meru County. Upgrade and expansion of the facility from a small airstrip to an international airport to accommodate heavy commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380 was completed in July 2017. Construction if Phase 1 of the upgrade began in 2011 and the airport runway, lengthened from 1.5 kilometers to 2.5 kilometers, opened in 2013. Ground-breaking for a new terminal meeting international standards took place in February 2013 and works were completed in February 2016. Phase 3 included an apron and access roads, completed in March 2016. The government of Kenya commissioned Isiolo Airport in July 2017.[6] The programme to upgrade and expand Isiolo Airport cost USD27 million. The airport has sufficient capacity to handle 350,000 passengers annually. But in April 2018, eight months after it was opened, Isiolo Airport was underultilized, operating at a small fraction of its capacity with a mere four flights per week.[7]
Project Area (in hectares)327.9 hectares
Level of Investment (in USD)USD 27,000,000
Start Date12/2004
Company Names or State EnterprisesKenya Airports Authority (KAA) from Kenya - Developer and operator of Isiolo Airport
Northern Construction Company from Kenya - Awarded contract to build new passenger terminal during phase two of Isiolo Airport upgrade and expansion project, completed February 2016
Relevant government actorsIsiolo County Council

Meru County Council

Government of Kenya
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersHakijamii - http://www.hakijamii.com/

Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI) - http://www.ldgi.org/

The Conflict and the Mobilization

Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Global warming, Noise pollution, Other Environmental impacts, Air pollution
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
OtherReduced water supply due to construction of water supply to the airport
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Potential: Other Health impacts
OtherIllnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Land dispossession, Violations of human rights
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Other socio-economic impacts
OtherInterference in education due to: restricted access to a school within the airport fence, noise from aircraft and construction works impairing concentration

Lack of jobs for local people at the airport

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Land demarcation
Migration/displacement
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.There were environmental justice failures as some residents were not compensated by the time the expanded airport commenced operations.

Sources and Materials

Links

[1] Robert Kibugi, Ibrahim Mwathane and Mwenda Makathimo, Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investment in Kenya: Is the participation, and benefits of affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties., Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), 2016
http://www.ldgi.org/index.php/media-centre/research-reports/88-ldgi-research-large-scale-land-acquistiton-for-investments-in-kenya/file

[5] Conflict over water that could delay opening of Isiolo International Airport, Standard Kenya, 22 May 2016
https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000202694/conflict-over-water-that-could-delay-opening-of-isiolo-international-airport

[2] Isiolo International Airport set to be commissioned soon but compensation woes still far from over, Radio Shahidi, 7 November 2016
http://www.radioshahidi.org/news/isiolo-international-airport-set-be-commissioned-soon-compensation-woes-still-far-over#sthash.2elTkumb.dpbs

[3] THE TENSION BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS & DEVELOPMENT:THE CASE OF LAPSSET IN ISIOLO COUNTY, Economic and Social Rights Centre (Hakijamii), October 2017
http://www.hakijamii.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Lapsset-report.compressed.pdf

[4] Concerns over safety at Isiolo airport as school yet to be relocated, Daily Nation, 10 May 2016
https://www.nation.co.ke/counties/isiolo/School-inside-Isiolo-airport/1183266-3197350-2jhi17/index.html

[6] Isiolo International Airport, Airport Technology
https://www.airport-technology.com/projects/isiolo-international-airport/

[7] Isiolo airport underutilised, KAA boss tells House team, Daily Nation, 24 April 2018
https://www.nation.co.ke/counties/isiolo/Isiolo-airport-underutilised--KAA-boss-tells-House-team/1183266-4520946-43fed0/index.html

Media Links

Isiolo airport evictees demand compensation, Kenya Citizen TV, 16 May 2017 ( A man speaks in English at 0.48)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsEoyXS6_9Y

Other Documents

Accessing school via a hole in the fence Pupils and teachers cut a hole in the Isiolo Airport fence to access K K Nkengecia Primary School. Source: Source: Vivian Jebet | Nation Media Group
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Isiolo_3.jpg

Residents left without water In May 2016 a project to supply water to Isiolo Airport left thousands of residents without water. Source: Standard Kenya
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Isiolo_3a.jpg

Isiolo Airport runway Source: CAPITALBUSINESS
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Isiolo_5.jpg

K K Nkengecia Primary School A primary school just 500 meters from the runway had yet to be relocated as Isiolo Airport prepared to commence operations in 2016. Source: Vivian Jebet | Nation Media Group
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Isiolo_2.jpg

Isiolo Airport upgraded and expanded Source: Kenya Airports Authority (KAA)
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Isiolo_4.jpg

Construction of Isiolo Airport Isiolo Airport has been expanded from a small airstrip to an international airport with a 2.5km runway. Source: radioshahidi.org
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Isiolo_construction.jpg

Meta Information

ContributorRose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update08/01/2019

Images

 

Construction of Isiolo Airport

Isiolo Airport has been expanded from a small airstrip to an international airport with a 2.5km runway. Source: radioshahidi.org

Isiolo Airport runway

Source: CAPITALBUSINESS

K K Nkengecia Primary School

A primary school just 500 meters from the runway had yet to be relocated as Isiolo Airport prepared to commence operations in 2016. Source: Vivian Jebet | Nation Media Group

Accessing school via a hole in the fence

Pupils and teachers cut a hole in the Isiolo Airport fence to access K K Nkengecia Primary School. Source: Source: Vivian Jebet | Nation Media Group

Residents left without water

In May 2016 a project to supply water to Isiolo Airport left thousands of residents without water. Source: Standard Kenya

Isiolo Airport upgraded and expanded

Source: Kenya Airports Authority (KAA)