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ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), India


Description:

Government of India has come out with a gigantic and consolidated 'Sagarmala' national perspective plan to execute nearly 400 different projects along the coastline at a whopping cost of 8 lakh cores (lac crore rupees) in the next two decades. This includes constructing massive ports, augmenting coastal infrastructure, developing inland waterways, intensifying dee-sea fishing, and creating special economic zones and tourism promotion. 

Coastal economy as well as the life and livelihood of the fisher-folk would be the first to be sacrificed for this extremely ambitious corporate agenda. This is already ongoing and the Enayam International Container Transshipment Terminal (EICTT) is the typical example [1] (Jasiah Joseph, 2017).

EICTT has been conceived even though there is already a similar big port facility is under construction at Vizhinjam, just about 30 km North-West. A coal terminal with a captive 2,000 MW thermal power plant is also part of the Enayam project, which is to be implemented in three phases between 2017-2030 (with a total capacity of 127.05 MTPA at the current cost estimate of Rs. 27,750 crores) [1] (Devasahayam, 2017).

The proposed major port is located in between Enayam and Colachel (between Helen Nagar and Melakurumbanai villages) at Kanyakumari District at a distance of 14NM from East-West International Shipping Route. The proposal envisages construction of breakwaters, dredging-reclamation, container berths with provision for addition of multi-purpose/dry bulk berths. The draft at the harbour is proposed at 16m capable of handling 18000 TEU capacity container vessels and cape size coal vessels. [2]

September 18th 2016 saw hundreds of fishermen and their family members staging a protest against the proposed port. The fishermen expressed fear of severe sea erosion, which could affect their livelihood, if the port would be established on over 500 acres of sea area as it is proposed. The project would displace around 50,000 fisher families.

The protest, spearheaded by Peoples’ Movement Against Enayam International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), saw the participation of women and children belonging to the fishermen community. PMAEICTT had been opposing the project for more than one year and had staged various agitations, including a mammoth human chain at Kodimunai seashore in August 2016. [3]

Basic Data

Name of conflict:ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), India
Country:India
State or province:Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu
Location of conflict:Between Helen Nagar and Melakurumbanai villages, Colachel and Enayam
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Thermal power plants
Ports and airport projects
Aquaculture and fisheries
Specific commodities:Biological resources
Fish

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The proposed major port is located in between Enayam and Colachel (Helen Nagar to Melakurumbanai village) at Kanyakumari District at a distance of 14NM from East-West International Shipping Route. The proposal envisages construction of breakwaters, dredging- reclamation, container berths with provision for addition of multi-purpose/dry bulk berths. The draft at the harbour is proposed at 16m capable of handling 18000 TEU capacity container vessels and cape size coal vessels. [2]

This port will act as the southern trans-shipment gateway. The estimated cost for this project is Rs 28000 crore. 500 acres of land will be reclaimed from the sea. [3]

A coal terminal with a capacity of 2000 MW thermal power plant is also part of the Enayam project, which is to be implemented in three phases between 2017-2030 (with a total capacity of 127.05 MTPA at the current cost estimate of Rs. 27,750 crores). [1]

Project area:108,000
Level of Investment:4,402,440,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:300,000
Start of the conflict:01/07/2016
Company names or state enterprises:Kanyakumari Enayam Port Ltd. from India
Relevant government actors:Central government of India; Ministry of Environment and Forests
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:People's Movement Against ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT)
National Fishworkers' Forum of India
http://www.nffindia.org
https://www.facebook.com/NFFIndia/
Coastal Action Network
http://humanrightsfoundation.org.in/new/?p=407
Tamil Research Institute
http://www.tamilri.com/about-us/
http://www.tamilri.com/enayam-port/
Other supporting groups and EJOs coming together in Tamil Nadu Coastal Yatra for Bigger Protests in July 2017 (https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=1887343038180434&story_fbid=1889479531300118):
Aazhkadal Meenpidi Thozhilaalar Sangham
Vangakadal Meenpidi Thozhilaalar Sangham
Ramanathapuram Fishworkers Trade Union (RFTU)
National Alliance of People's Movement (NAPM)
https://napmindia.wordpress.com
People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy (PMANE)

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Trade unions
Women
Religious groups
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Human chains

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts
Other Environmental impactsSea erosion/accretion, negative impact on Western Ghats (one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites as a very important biodiversity hotspot), marine biodiversity and rich fishery resources, riverine ecosystem, coral reefs and turtle nesting sites as well as damage on sand dunes and increased risks of tsunami and storms
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
Other socio-economic impactsPotential loss of jobs in small-scale fisheries, displacement and marginalisation of large number of traditional fisherfolk, farmers and their families

Outcome

Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:Under negotiation
Development of alternatives:Improving facilities in other major ports and removing the Enayam Port Project [4, 5]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (CRZ-2011)
http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/CRZ-Notification-2011.pdf

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[1] Jasiah Joseph and Devasahayam, PMAEICTT Paper presented to the 7th General Assembly of WFFP, November 2017

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Hunger strike against the Enayam project (The Hindu News, August 2017)
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/Hunger-strike-against-Enayam-project/article14998466.ece

[3] Webbage of Global Paravar (The Fisher Folks of the Paravar Community, 17 October 2016)
http://globalparavar.org/enayam-port-kanyakumari-district/

The Enayam Project Will Affect 20,000 Families (The New Indian Express, July 2017)
http://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/chennai/2017/jul/28/enayam-port-project-will-affect-20k-families-1634607.html

[5] Scrap Enayam Project, Fishermen Urge Centre (The Hindu News, 22 November 2017)
http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/scrap-enayam-project-fishermen-urge-centre/article20631331.ece

Enayam Port Will Be Financial, Environmental and Social Disaster (The Times of India, July 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/enayam-port-will-be-financial-environmental-and-social-disaster/articleshow/59798383.cms

[2] The Webpage of Kanyakumari Enayam Port Limited
http://www.enayamport.co/

[4] Modernise major ports, drop Enayam seaport idea (The Hindu News, 2 November 2017)
http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/modernise-major-ports-drop-enayam-seaport-idea/article19965884.ece

Is the law protecting India's coasts being diluted? TN activists carry out protest yatra (The News, 27 July 2017)
https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/law-protecting-indias-coasts-being-diluted-tn-activists-carry-out-protest-yatra-65860

Fisherfolk and Farmers Against Port Near Kanniyakumari (The Hindu News, 13 January 2018)
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/fisherfolk-farmers-against-port-near-kanniyakumari/article22434502.ece

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Sea is for fishing communities - Coastal Yatra by NFF (July 2017)
http://tnlabour.in/fish-workers/5654

Enayam Port Project (The Hindu BusinessLine, July 2016)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DH8avqBBzNU

Meta information

Contributor:Irmak Ertor, ENVJUSTICE, ICTA, UAB
Last update31/01/2018

Images

 

Protests Against Enayam Port Project

Protests Against Enayam Port Project in the World Fisheries Day, 21 November 2017

Protests Against Enayam Port Project

Protests Against Enayam Port Project in the World Fisheries Day, 21 November 2017